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Appendix A: Glossary

Accumulation (petroleum)
An individual body of naturally occurring petroleum in a reservoir or a group of reservoirs that are related to a localised geological structural feature and/or stratigraphic condition (trap).
Availability factor
Percentage of time that an electricity generating plant can be operated at full output.
Base load
The minimum level of demand (load) on an electricity supply system that exists 24 hours a day.
Basin
A geological depression filled with sedimentary rocks.
Biofuels
Liquid fuels (e.g. ethanol, biodiesel) produced directly or indirectly from biomass.
Biogas
Gas captured from landfill sites (garbage tips), sewage treatment plants and livestock feedlots.
Biomass
Vegetable and animal derived organic materials, such as forestry residues, wood waste, bagasse (sugar cane residue), oilseed crops and animal waste.
Capacity factor
The amount of electricity that the plant produces over a given period divided by the amount of electricity it could have produced if it had run at full power over that same period.
Cogeneration
Also known as a CHP (combined heat and power). Simultaneous production of heat and electricity in the one fuel combustion process.
Completion (petroleum)
The process by which a finished well (borehole) is either sealed off or prepared for production.
Conventional resources (petroleum)
Petroleum resources within discrete accumulations that are recoverable through wells (boreholes) and typically require minimal processing prior to sale. For natural gas, the term generally refers to methane held in a porous rock reservoir frequently in combination with heavier hydrocarbons.
Conversion
The process of transforming one form of energy into another before use. Conversion itself consumes energy, calculated as the difference between the energy content of the fuels consumed and that of the fuels produced.
Development
Petroleum: phase in which a proven oil or gas field is brought into production by drilling and completing production wells.
Minerals: phase in which the mineral deposit is brought into production through development of a mine.
Discovered petroleum initially-in-place
Quantity of petroleum that is estimated, as of a given date, to be contained in known accumulations prior to production.
Discovery
Petroleum: first well (borehole), in a new field from which any measurable amount of oil or gas has been recovered. A well that makes a discovery is classified as a new field discovery (NFD).
Minerals: first drill intersection of economic grade mineralisation at a new site.
Enhanced oil recovery
The extraction of additional petroleum, beyond primary recovery, from naturally occurring reservoirs by supplementing the natural forces in the reservoir. It includes water flooding and gas injection for pressure maintenance (secondary processes) and any other means of supplementing natural reservoir recovery processes, including thermal and chemical processes to improve the in-situ mobility of viscous forms of petroleum (tertiary processes).
Exploration
Phase in which a company or organisation searches for petroleum or mineral resources by carrying out detailed geological and geophysical surveys, followed up where appropriate by drilling and other evaluation of the most prospective sites.
Extension/appraisal wells (petroleum)
Wells (boreholes) drilled to determine the physical extent, reserves and likely production rate of a field.
Field (petroleum)
An area consisting of a single reservoir or multiple reservoirs grouped on, or related to, the same individual geological structural feature and/or stratigraphic condition.
Fossil fuels
A hydrocarbon deposit in geological formations that may be used as fuel such as crude oil, coal or natural gas.
Gas-to-liquids
Technologies that use specialised processing (e.g. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis) to convert natural gas into liquid petroleum products.
JORC Code
The Australasian Code for Reporting of Exploration Results, Mineral Resources and Ore Reserves, prepared by the Joint Ore Reserves Committee.
It is a principles-based code which sets out recommended minimum tandards and guidelines on classification and public reporting in Australasia. Companies listed on the Australian Securities Exchange are required to report exploration outcomes, resources and reserves in accordance with the JORC Code standards and guidelines.
Liquid fuels
All liquid hydrocarbons, including crude oil, condensate, LPG, and other refined petroleum products.
Load factor
The ratio of the actual amount of kilowatt-hours delivered on a system in a given period of time to the total possible kilowatt-hours that could be delivered on the system over that same time period.
Megawatt, gigawatt, terawatt
106, 109, 1012 watts respectively. Measures of electricity generator capacity or output. Consumption is measured in multiples of watt-hours. See also Appendix C.
Non-renewable resources
Resources, such as fossil fuels (crude oil, natural gas, coal) and uranium that are depleted by extraction.
Peak load
Period of most frequent or heaviest use of electricity.
Petajoule
1015 joules, the standard form of reporting energy aggregates. One petajoule is equivalent to 278 gigawatt-hours. See also Appendix D.
Play (geological)
A model that can be used to direct petroleum exploration. It is a group of fields or prospects in the same region and controlled by the same set of geological circumstances.
Primary energy
Energy found in nature that has not been subjected to any conversion or transformation process.
Primary fuels
The forms of energy sources obtained directly from nature. They include non-renewable fuels such as black coal, brown coal, uranium, crude oil and condensate, natural gas, and renewable fuels such as biomass, hydro, wind, solar, ocean and geothermal.
Primary recovery
The extraction of petroleum from reservoirs utilising the natural energy available in the reservoirs to move fluids through the reservoir rock to points of recovery.
Production
Petroleum: the phase of bringing well fluids to the surface, separating them and storing, gauging and otherwise preparing them for transport.
Minerals: the phase at which operations produce mined product.
Prospect (geological)
A potential accumulation of petroleum or minerals that is sufficiently well defined to represent a viable drilling target.
Renewable resources
Resources that can be replenished at a rate equal to or greater than the rate of depletion, such as biomass, hydro, solar, wind, ocean and geothermal.
Resources
A concentration of naturally occurring solid, liquid or gaseous materials in or on the Earth's crust in such form and amount that its economic exploitation is currently or potentially feasible. See also Appendix C.
Total final energy consumption
The total amount of energy consumed in the final or end-use sectors. It is equal to total primary energy consumption less the energy consumed or lost in conversion, transmission and distribution.
Total primary energy consumption
Also referred to as total domestic availability. The total of the consumption of each primary fuel (in energy units) in both the conversion and end-use sectors. It includes the use of primary fuels in conversion activities - notably the consumption of fuels used to produce petroleum products and electricity. It also includes own-use and losses in the conversion sector.
Trap (geological)
Any barrier to the upward movement of oil or gas, allowing either or both to accumulate. The barrier
can be a stratigraphic trap, an overlying impermeable rock formation or a structural trap as result of faulting or folding.
Unconventional resources (petroleum)
Resources within petroleum accumulations that are pervasive throughout a large area and that are not significantly affected by hydrodynamic influences. Typically, such accumulations require specialised extraction technology. Examples include coal seam gas (CSG), tight gas, shale gas, gas hydrates, natural bitumen and shale oil.
Undiscovered accumulation (petroleum)
Generally, all undiscovered petroleum deposits irrespective of their economic potential. All of the petroleum accumulations that may occur in multiple reservoirs within the same structural or stratigraphic trap are referred to as undiscovered fields.
Wildcat well
A petroleum exploration well drilled on a structural or stratigraphic trap that has not previously been shown to contain petroleum.