Mineral Sands

Yanis Miezitis (yanis.miezitis@ga.gov.au)

The principal components of heavy mineral sands are rutile (TiO2), ilmenite (FeTiO3), zircon (ZrSiO4) and monazite ([Ce,La,Th]PO4). Also present are minor amounts of xenotime (Y(PO4)) - a yttrium-bearing phosphate hosting 54 to 65% REO, and comprising other REE such as erbium and cerium, and thorium. Rutile, ilmenite, leucoxene (an alteration product of ilmenite) are used predominantly in the production of titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigment. The titanium-bearing minerals rutile and leucoxene are sometimes blended to produce HiTi (High grade titanium with a TiO2 content of 70% to 95%) which is used as a feedstock to produce titanium dioxide, make titanium metals for the aerospace industry and in the manufacture of welding rods. Less than 4% of total titanium mineral production, typically rutile, is used in making titanium sponge metal. Zircon is used as an opacifier for glazes on ceramic tiles, in refractories and for the foundry industry. Recently there has been renewed interest in monazite as a source of thorium for possible use to generate electricity in thorium nuclear reactors.

Resources

Economic Demonstrated Resources (EDR) of ilmenite decreased by 5.3% to 188.9 million tonnes (Mt) in 2011, down from 199.5 Mt in 2010. About 45.7% of Australia's EDR of ilmenite is in Western Australia (WA) and 19% is in Queensland (Qld) with Victoria (Vic) containing 21.8%, New South Wales (NSW) 10.3% and South Australia (SA) 3.1%.

EDR of rutile, which includes some leucoxene in WA, increased by 15.7% to 27.2 Mt in 2011 from 23.5 Mt in 2010. Victoria has the largest share of Australia's rutile EDR with 42.3% followed by Qld (19.9%), WA (19.1%), NSW (16.5%) and SA (2.2%).

EDR of zircon increased from 39.4 Mt in 2010 to 46.6 Mt in 2011 with Vic (33.8%), WA (29.9%) and Qld (16.5%) accounting for most of Australia's zircon EDR. The balance was in SA (11.8%) and NSW (7.8%).

Australia's Subeconomic Demonstrated Resources of ilmenite, rutile and zircon in 2011 amounted to 30.3 Mt of ilmenite, which was a decrease of 21.9% on 2010, 0.6 Mt of rutile, a decrease of 91.5% on the previous year, and 1.3 Mt of zircon, a decrease of 87.5% on the 2010 figure.

Inferred Resources of ilmenite increased by 41.9% in 2011 to 182.1 Mt. Victoria has the largest proportion of inferred ilmenite resources with 48.1% of the Australian total followed by NSW (15.2%), WA (21.2%) and Qld (8.7%).

Inferred Resources of rutile increased to 40.2 Mt from 30.1 Mt in 2010. Victoria has the largest share of Australia's inferred rutile resources with 62.9% of the Australian total followed by NSW (22.7%), SA (4.8%), Qld (4.7%) and WA (4.7%).

Inferred Resources of zircon increased to 62.1 Mt from 34.9 Mt in 2010. Victoria is the main holder of zircon Inferred Resources with 74.9% of the Australian total, followed by NSW (10.9%), WA (4.9%) and Qld (4.7%).

Accessible EDR

A significant portion of mineral sands EDR is in areas quarantined from mining because they are largely incorporated in national parks and other areas with restricted access to mining. Geoscience Australia estimates that around 17% of ilmenite, 12% of rutile and 14% of zircon EDR is unavailable for mining. Deposits in this category include Moreton Island, Bribie Island and Fraser Island, the Cooloola sand mass, the Byfield sand mass and the Shoalwater Bay area in Qld and the Yuraygir, Bundjalung, Hat Head and Myall Lakes National Parks in NSW.

JORC Reserves

About 27% of Australia's ilmenite Accessible EDR (AEDR), 27% of rutile AEDR and 34% of zircon AEDR comprise Reserves as defined under the Joint Ore Reserve Committee (JORC) Code. The remaining AEDR represents resources assessed by Geoscience Australia from the Measured and Indicated categories of industry-reported mineral resources as defined under the JORC Code, and other classification systems used by companies not listed on the Australian Securities Exchange.

About 83% of Australia's ilmenite AEDR, 76% rutile AEDR and 73% zircon AEDR comprises published JORC Code compliant Measured and Indicated Resources. Some of these resources are in deposits of operating mines and mines being developed as well as in deposits that have published scoping/feasibility studies with positive results and deposits that are of comparable size and grade to those being mined elsewhere in Australia. It is not possible to make a more detailed analysis of these resources on an individual deposit scale because of a lack of resource data.

Duration of Resources

At the rate of production in 2011, Australia's AEDR of ilmenite, rutile and zircon is sufficient for an average of 122 years for ilmenite (127 years in 2010), 50 for rutile (47 years in 2010) and 53 for zircon (61 years in 2010). However, resources in the JORC Code reserves categories are adequate for only 33 years for ilmenite (22 years in 2010), 14 for rutile (11 years in 2010), and 18 for zircon (16 years in 2010). Variations in resource life of the three commodities are based on the AEDR and are the result of changing levels of production. For example, lower production in response to a fall in demand because of global recessions may create the impression of an increase in resource life, but is not necessarily indicative of an increase in resources. Such trends may be reversed with resumption of demand and, as a consequence, represent snapshots of the resource life at that time.

Exploration

Expenditure on exploration for mineral sands has not been available since 2010.

Production

In 2011, Australia produced 1.277 Mt of ilmenite, 474 000 tonnes of rutile, 225 000 tonnes of leucoxene and 762 000 tonnes of zircon compared with 1.313 Mt of ilmenite, 430 000 tonnes of rutile, 160 000 tonnes of leucoxene and 540 000 tonnes of zircon in 2010. About 1.973 Mt of ilmenite, 388 000 tonnes of rutile and 963 000 tonnes of zircon was exported in 2011, with exports exceeding production for ilmenite and zircon in 2011. Australia also produced 526 000 tonnes of synthetic rutile in 2011 compared with 557 000 tonnes in 2010.

According to Iluka Resources Ltd6, the global zircon demand in the first half of 2012 remained soft with larger inventories of ceramic finished goods in China and a weak European market. The demand for high grade titanium dioxide was high in the first quarter in 2012 but softened in the second quarter.

World Ranking

According to Geoscience Australia and the United States Geological Survey data, Australia's EDR of rutile and zircon represent the world's largest economic resources in 2011 with 53%, and 50%, respectively. Australia also has the second largest share of the world's ilmenite with 15%, behind China, which has 31%. Other major country rankings include India (13%), South Africa (10%) and Brazil (7%) for ilmenite, South Africa (16%) and India (14%) for rutile and South Africa (23%) and Ukraine (7%) for zircon.

During 2011, world production of ilmenite increased by 7.8% to 11 Mt, rutile increased by 6.3% to 773 000 tonnes and zircon increased by 16.6% to 1.45 Mt. Australia is the largest producer of rutile with about 61.3% of the world production followed by South Africa with 16.9% and Sierra Leone with 7.8%. Australia is the third largest producer of ilmenite with 11.1% after South Africa with 17.8% and Canada with 12.1%, and is the largest producer of zircon with 52.6% followed by South Africa with 26.2% and China with 6.9%.

Industry Developments

Companies which produced heavy mineral sands during 2011 were Iluka Resources Ltd, Bemax Resources Ltd, Tiwest joint venture and Doral Mineral Sands Pty Ltd, all in WA, and Sibelco Australia Ltd in Qld. Iluka Resources and Bemax Resources also produced heavy minerals in the Murray Basin in Vic and NSW and at the Matilda Zircon Limited deposits on the Tiwi Islands off the Northern Territory.

Iluka Resources' heavy mineral sand operations in WA are located in two regions, the mid-west region north of Perth and in the State's southwest region south of Perth.

The coastal mid-west region comprises the main mines of Eneabba (two wet concentrators, five mining units). The region includes the company's Narngulu facility at Geraldton comprising mineral separation, zircon finishing and two synthetic rutile kilns (SR kilns 3 and 4) as well as port operations and storage facilities at Geraldton. Iluka Resources has upgraded its Narngulu plant to process heavy mineral concentrates (HMC) from its Jacinth-Ambrosia mine in the Eucla Basin in SA.

Another mineral separation plant, SR kilns 1 and 2 are located at North Capel in the southwest region of WA, which also hosts Iluka Resources heavy minerals mine at South Tutunup.

During 2011, Iluka Resources recommenced mining at Eneabba at the Twin Hills and Hill North deposits. A pre-feasibility study for the proposed Cataby mine development in the mid-west region approximately 150 kilometres north of Perth progressed during the year. The Gingin mine in mid-west was closed in 2010 and was undergoing rehabilitation in 2011. Zircon production from the southwest region was transported to Narngulu in the mid-west. Mining continued at the Tutunup South deposit which provides HMC for the mineral separation plant at North Capel.

The SR kiln 2 in the southwest restarted operations after planned maintenance and a trial parcel of 10 000 tonnes of ilmenite from Iluka Resources mining operations in Virginia, USA, was passed through the SR kiln 3 in the mid-west.

In 2011, production of heavy mineral sand commodities from Iluka Resources mining and processing activities in WA, now referred to as the Perth Basin, amounted to 99 700 tonnes of upgradeable ilmenite (upgradeable to synthetic rutile), 285 700 tonnes of synthetic rutile and 9300 tonnes of zircon.

In the Eucla Basin in SA, Iluka Resources operates the Jacinth-Ambrosia mine and owns the Tripitaka, Typhoon, Atacama and the newly discovered Sonoran deposits. Production from the Jacinth-Ambrosia mine during 2011 amounted to 313 700 tonnes of zircon, 56 400 tonnes of rutile and 171 600 tonnes of saleable ilmenite and 2700 tonnes of upgradeable ilmenite. The heavy mineral concentrates from the Jacinth-Ambrosia mine are transported 270 km by road to the Port of Thevenard near Ceduna, SA before being sent about 2500 km by sea to Geraldton for mineral separation at Iluka Resources upgraded Narngulu Plant 2 in the mid-west region. On 28 January 2011, Iluka Resources announced resources for its Sonoran deposit as 30.1 Mt grading at 7.3% heavy minerals with a heavy mineral assemblage comprising 67% ilmenite, 17% zircon and 2% rutile at a heavy mineral cut-off grade of 3%. The Sonoran deposit is similar to Atacama but differs from the Jacinth-Ambrosia deposit in that it contains a zircon component in the heavy mineral concentrate of around 15% which compares with around 50% for the Jacinth-Ambrosia deposit.

Iluka Resources operates a mineral separation plant at Hamilton, Victoria, to produce the final specification rutile and zircon. The mineral separation plant processes feedstock from the Douglas project near Horsham in western Vic. and from the Murray Basin Stage 2 development at Kulwin, 30 km west of Ouyen in northwest Vic. Mining and concentration operations at Douglas were completed in the first half of 2012.

Iluka Resources reported in its June 2012 quarterly report that mining operations were interrupted during the first half of 2012 by a mine move from the Kulwin deposit to the Woornack, Rownack, Pirro (WRP) deposits, approximately 25 km away. After a successful plant relocation from Kulwin, commissioning of the WRP mining unit and wet concentrator commenced mid April with HMC production commencing in early May 2012.

Another group of deposits are located at Euston in NSW named Castaway, Kerribee, Earl, Dispersion and Koolaman.

Production from the Murray Basin operations in 2011 totalled 224 900 tonnes of rutile, 99 500 tonnes of upgradeable ilmenite and 218 200 tonnes of zircon.

In 2011, Iluka Resources continued a pre-feasibility study for the Balranald project. The Balranald project comprises the deposits of West Balranald and Nepean in southwest NSW. The deposits are large, but also deeper than other deposits which Iluka Resources has mined in the Murray Basin. The Balranald deposit contains approximately 14.5 Mt of heavy mineral resources, with rutile assemblages ranging from 12% to 15%. The pre-feasibility study is expected to take two years will include evaluation of various mining methods, ground water management studies, engineering options, and transport and logistics studies. Production is planned to commence in 20157.

The heavy mineral resources/reserves held by Bemax Resources (a controlled entity of Cristal Australia Pty Ltd) are located in old shorelines in two provinces, the Murray Basin in Vic and NSW, and the southwest region of WA. The company's operations in the Murray Basin include the Ginkgo and Snapper mines and a mineral separation plant at Broken Hill in western NSW.

Bemax Resources last reported in 2009 that its total resource in the Murray Basin amounted to 95.1 Mt of contained heavy mineral. Bemax no longer publishes its resources for individual deposits and regions and the resources for the Murray Basin in 2010 are not known.

Production from Bemax Resources Ginkgo and Snapper mines in 2011 totalled 239 355 tonnes of ilmenite, 32 564 tonnes of zircon and 84 863 tonnes of rutile8. Bemax Resources reported that resource drilling at Atlas-Campaspe and Crayfish deposits was completed in 2011.

Bemax Resources heavy mineral sand mining in the southwest region of WA continued at Gwindinup, about 30 km south of its mineral separation plant at Bunbury. The company reported in its March 2012 quarterly report that development of the Wonnerup mine is continuing9. Heavy mineral production from Bemax Resources operations in the southwest region in 2011 amounted to 124 158 tonnes of sulphate and secondary ilmenite and leucoxene and 9958 tonnes of zircon.

The heavy mineral sand mines on North Stradbroke island, are owned by Sibelco Australia Limited. There has been no published information on the production of heavy minerals or resources of heavy minerals since 2008.

Australia Sands, a wholly owned subsidiary of Exxaro Resources Ltd, has as a principal asset 50% ownership in the Tiwest Joint Venture with Tronox Incorporated. Tiwest operates an integrated titanium dioxide project in WA incorporating a dredging and dry-mining heavy mineral sands operation at Cooljarloo, dry separation and synthetic rutile plants at Chandala and a titanium dioxide pigment plant at Kwinana. Production in 2011 was approximately 452 000 tonnes of ilmenite, 64 000 tonnes of zircon, 38 000 tonnes of rutile, 20 000 tonnes of leucoxene, 180 000 tonnes of synthetic rutile and 152 000 tonnes of TiO2 pigment. On 26 September 2011, Exxaro Resources and Tronox Incorporated announced that New Tronox will acquire Exxaro Resources mineral sands operations, which includes Exxaro Resources 50% interest in the Tiwest joint venture with Tronox Incorporated, along with 74% of the Exxaro Resources KZN Sands and Namakwa Sands operations in South Africa, in exchange for a 38.5% shareholding in New Tronox.

Matilda Zircon Ltd's Leithbridge South deposit was developed over the 2010-11 wet season but a fire in June 2011 damaged the concentrator and pre-concentrator which had to be rebuilt. This resulted in mining of the deposit being delayed until early 2012. Production recommenced in the first half of 2012 and mining at Leithbridge South will be completed by November 2012. Matilda Zircon also entered into a strategic alliance with Doral Pty Ltd under which Doral provided Matilda Zircon with US$4.5 million to complete a feasibility study of the Keysbrook heavy mineral project in southwest WA. The Keysbrook mine is expected to have a life of eight years. On 19 July 2012, Matilda Zircon reported that it was planning to commence construction at Keysbrook in early 2013 and begin production in late 201310. On 4 September 2012, Matilda Zircon Ltd changed its name to MZI Resources Ltd.

Gunson Resources Ltd released a definitive feasibility study in January 2010 on its Coburn heavy mineral sand deposits south of Geraldton in WA. The study considered a mine life of 23.5 years with annual production rates of 40 000 tonnes of zircon, 90 000 tonnes of ilmenite, 9000 tonnes of rutile and 7000 tonnes of leucoxene. The company reported that in 2011, the net present value for the project increased substantially to $223.7 million from $139 million as the prices of zircon and titanium dioxide minerals increased, in some cases to more than double those prevailing in early 2010. Gunson Resources announced on 13 August 2012 that the board of a major Korean steel producer, POSCO, had approved investment in Gunson Resources Coburn zircon project11. Under the agreement, POSCO's special purpose investment vehicle (SPV) will earn 40% interest by making a $7 million initial payment to Gunson Resources and then contributing the first $21 million of Gunson Resources share of mine development expenditure. POSCO investment in the project is contingent on Gunson Resources raising its 60% equity share of the mine development costs, less the $28 million earn-in expenditure by the POSCO SPV, by the end of 2012.

In March 2012, Gunson Resources announced that it had reached agreement for an ilmenite sales contract with the world's largest manufacturer of titanium dioxide, E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company (DuPont), owner of DuPont Titanium Technologies. The agreement is for DuPont to take Gunson Resources proposed share of chloride ilmenite production from Coburn over a five year period. Gunson Resources also noted that it was seeking off-take partners for the higher titanium dioxide mineral products (rutile and leucoxene combined into a 90% TiO2 HiTi product) and zircon.

Image Resources NL holds heavy mineral sand resources in the North Perth Basin and in the Eucla Basin, WA. Image Resources reported that in March 2012 it had commenced a detailed review of the August 2011 scoping study to determine the basis of design for a feasibility study and to confirm the project development schedule. The feasibility study is scheduled to be completed by the first quarter of 201312.

Image Resources also released a resource figure for its Cyclone Extended deposit in the Eucla Basin amounting to 86.3 Mt of Indicated and Inferred Resources containing 1.638 Mt of heavy minerals at a cut-off of 1% heavy minerals containing 345 000 tonnes of zircon, 154 700 tonnes of rutile, 617 800 tonnes of HiTi (70%-95% TiO2) and 395 700 tonnes of altered ilmenite (55%-70% TiO2)13. The Cyclone Extended deposit forms a southeast extension of the Cyclone deposit.

In March 2012, Diatreme Resources Ltd released results of a prefeasibility study on its Cyclone heavy minerals deposit in the Eucla Basin together with a prefeasibility study pit design which enclosed a Probable Ore Reserve of 97 Mt at 2.5% heavy mineral cut off containing 2.4 Mt heavy minerals, including 770 000 tonnes of zircon. The prefeasibility study indicated a potential to mine 10 million tonnes per annum (Mtpa) of ore yielding approximately 147 000 tonnes of HMC producing 65 000 tonnes of zircon, 10 000 tonnes of HiTi87 (86.6% TiO2) and 46 000 tonnes of HiTi67 (67.3% TiO2). The ore reserve is contained within a Measured and Indicated Resource of 136 Mt of ore at 2.3% heavy minerals containing 3.1 Mt of heavy minerals grading 31% zircon, 3% rutile, 6% leucoxene (85-95% TiO2), 21% HiTi (70-85% TiO2) and 23% altered ilmenite (<70% TiO2)14.

Astron Ltd's Donald project in the Murray Basin in Vic comprises the Donald (WIM 250) and Jackson (WIM 200) deposits located 240 km west-north-west of Melbourne. On 1 December 2011, the company announced Measured, Indicated and Inferred Resource for the deposits totalling 2630 Mt grading at 5.3% heavy minerals. The heavy mineral concentrate was reported to grade at 19% zircon, 33% ilmenite, 7% rutile and 12% leucoxene. Astron Ltd reported that the zircon content amounted to about 37 Mt. These resources are located within a larger resource totalling Measured, Indicated and Inferred Resources at 4040 Mt grading at 4.8% heavy minerals15.

In June 2012, Astron Ltd announced Proved and Probable Reserves within the Donald project totalling 461 Mt at 5.9% heavy minerals, which equates to about 27.199 Mt of heavy minerals at about 18.6% zircon, 33.9% ilmenite, 18.6% leucoxene and 6.8% rutile16. Astron Ltd also reported that it engaged an independent technical consultant to conduct a review of the company's proposed hot acid leaching process designed to reduce the level of uranium and thorium in its Donald zircon product from around 1000 parts per million (ppm) to around 500 ppm and minimize impurities such as iron, titanium, aluminium and phosphorus. The project is planned to be a 7.5 Mtpa mining operation producing 0.5 Mtpa of heavy mineral concentrate for export to China. The review concluded that there are no flaws in the process to produce a saleable zircon product.

On 28 August 2012, Sheffield Resources Ltd announced Measured, Indicated and Inferred Resources for its West Mine, Yandanooka, Durack and Ellengail deposits in the Eneabba region north of Perth, WA, totalling 226 Mt grading at 2.3% heavy minerals amounting to 5.29 Mt of heavy minerals17. The heavy mineral concentrate is estimated to grade at 11% zircon, 6.7% rutile, 6.4% leucoxene and 63.5% ilmenite.

On 3 September 2011, Sheffield Resources also announced a new discovery from drilling at its Dampier heavy mineral sand project near Derby in the Kimberley Region of WA. The Thunderbird discovery is the first target drilled by Sheffield Resources within the Dampier heavy mineral sand project area. Results from the first 24 holes, which represents about 14% of Sheffield's first drilling program, returned mineralised intervals of up to 42 metres (m) in width, some of the intersections published by Sheffield Resources include:

  • 33 m at 6.3% heavy minerals (HM) from surface (THAC022), including 21 m at 8.9% HM from surface;
  • 42 m at 6% HM from 6 m (THAC006), including 25.5 m at 8.2% HM from 12 m;
  • 40.5 m at 6.5% HM from 13.5 m (THAC024), including 25.5 m at 8.6% HM from 19.5 m; and
  • 20.5 m at 9.5% HM from 24 m (THAC013).

The project occurs over the Canning Basin and may represent a new unexplored heavy mineral province. Other companies exploring the area include Iluka Resources Ltd and Diatreme Resources Ltd.

On 15 May, Crossland Uranium Mines Limited reported resources for an inland placer deposit, the Charley Creek deposit, containing zircon, monazite and xenotime (YPO4). The company reported that the deposit is an alluvial outwash which comprises an Indicated Resource of 387 Mt containing 27 000 tonnes of xenotime, 161 000 tonnes of monazite and 196 000 tonnes of zircon. The xenotime and monazite were stated to contain about 14 000 tonnes of total rare earth oxides (REO). In addition, another 418 Mt of Inferred Resources was reported to hold about 121 000 tonnes of REO in about 31 000 tonnes of xenotime and 167 000 tonnes of monazite as well as 220 000 tonnes of zircon18. An earlier report by Crossland dated 5 April 2012 stated that the equivalent monazite in the HMC (calculated from chemical analyses) is 87 372 grams per tonne (g/t) and equivalent xenotime is 8310 g/t while the HMC in the alluvium was 2.54%19.

Metallica Minerals Limited's wholly-owned subsidiary, Oresome Australia Pty Ltd, reported that it had commenced the permit and statutory approval process for its Urquhart Point heavy mineral sands project in Cape York, Qld. The company has contracted work for an Environmental Impact Statement and a bankable feasibility study on the project20. The Urquhart Point deposits are approximately 5 km southwest of Weipa on the Gulf of Carpentaria, Qld. The zircon and rutile deposit has an Indicated Resource of 2.8 Mt at 7% heavy mineral sands to a maximum depth of three metres. On 26 April 2012, Metallica also announced an Inferred Resource for its Glenaladale-Stockdale deposit in east Gippsland, Vic amounting to 1700 Mt of ore grading 2.2% heavy minerals with a heavy mineral content of 38 Mt. An Inferred Resource of 360 Mt within the larger resource was reported as grading 2.7% heavy minerals containing 9.7 Mt heavy minerals, including 1.42 Mt zircon, 0.4 Mt rutile, 4.76 Mt combined titanium minerals and 60 000 tonnes monazite.

On 2 August 2011, Astro Resources NL reported that it had secured the rights to acquire the majority share in a heavy mineral sand project located in southwest WA, including the Warner Glen and Rover Range deposits. Astro reported that, in 1994, BHP estimated an Indicated Resource of 106 Mt of 2.82% ilmenite grading 0.06% zircon for the Warner Glen deposit and stated that the Rover Range has an additional JORC Code compliant Inferred Resource of 701 Mt of 2.6% ilmenite21.

Endnotes 

6 D. Robb, Managing Director, Iluka Resources Ltd, 2012. 2012 Half year results. Presentation slide pack, 23 August 2012.

7 Iluka Resources Ltd, 2011. Iluka Review 2011. 52pp.

8 Bemax Resources Ltd, 2012. December 2011 Quarterly Report. 3pp.

9 Bemax Resources Ltd, 2012. March 2012 Quarterly Report. 3pp.

10 Gunson Resources Ltd, 2012. Keysbrook leucoxene zircon project. Australian Securities Exchange release, 19 July, 2012. 4pp.

11 Gunson Resources Ltd, 2012. POSCO to invest in Coburn zircon project. Australian Securities Exchange release, 13 August, 2012. 1pp.

12 Image Resources NL, 2012. Quarterly report for the quarter ended 30 June 2012. 7pp.

13 Image Resources NL, 2011.Annual Report 2010. 60pp.

14 Diatreme Resources Ltd, 2012. Exploration activities report. Quarter ended 31 March 2012. Australian Securities Exchange release. 8pp.

15 Astron Ltd, 2011. Donald mineral sands project – resource update. Australian Securities Exchange release 1 December 2011. 3pp.

16 Astron Ltd, 2012. Donald mineral sands project – review of uranium/thorium wash process and proved ore reserve update. Australian Securities Exchange release 18 June 2012. 4pp.

17 Sheffield Resources Ltd, 2012. Eneabba project resource inventory exceeds 5Mt heavy mineral. Australian Securities Exchange release, 28 August 2012. 11pp.

18 Crossland Uranium Resources Ltd, 2012. Quarterly report for period encded June 30, 2012, 5pp.

19 Crossland Uranium Resources Ltd, 2012. Announcement to the Australian Securities Exchange 5 April 2012, 3pp.

20 Metallica Minerals Ltd, 2011. Annual Report, 40pp.

21 Astro Resources NL, 2011. Astro to acquire major new resource project. Announcement to the Australian Securities Exchange 2 August, 8pp.