Minerals and Energy

Australia is a leading producer of mineral and energy resources for the world.

A rock containing large blue-grey mica and white quartz crystals

Mica crystals in quartz. Both are
common minerals in the Earth's
crust. R01020.
Source Geoscience Australia.


Minerals are natural, inorganic substances. They have distinct physical and chemical properties and crystal structures. Mineral compositions can be expressed either by a chemical formula indicating the elements present and proportions in which they are combined such as SiO2, or by name such as quartz. Minerals vary from simple, pure elements like gold, copper, silver, carbon and sulphur, to complex compounds that have many forms. Common minerals that occur in the Earth’s crust include quartz, feldspar, mica and calcite. Minerals may occur as single crystals or collections of crystals. Rocks are made from one or more minerals.

Australian mineral facts Information for students about Australian minerals including properties, uses, history, formation, resources, and mining and processing.

Mineral Basics A summary of information on mineral resources and production in Australia, the history of mining, uses of  minerals, the mineral pipeline, and international trade.

Mineral Resources Detailed information on mineral resources in Australia, including uses, regularly updated production and export figures, resource estimates and links to precompetitive products to facilitate exploration activity.

Mining vehicles and a large mining truck in front of an underground mine entrance portal

Portal to underground mine.
Source: Geoscience Australia


Energy can be derived from a number of different sources found on land (onshore) and below the oceans (offshore). Australian energy resources include petroleum, coal, uranium and thorium, as well as geothermal energy and other renewable energy resources. Geoscience Australia's work is specifically involved in areas such as geothermal energy, petroleum based energy, uranium and thorium and other less developed forms of potential energy.

Energy Basics Our energy resources power our homes, cars and industry, and are a key contributor to Australia's economic prosperity. Australia is well endowed with an abundance of both non-renewable and renewable fuels.

Energy Resources  Discoveries of new energy resources (petroleum, coal, uranium, thorium and geothermal energy) can be assisted by an understanding of geology and underground structures.

Non-renewable Resources

Renewable Resources

Further Information