Citation

Geoscience Australia provides most of its products for free under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia Licence. We only require that you reference the use of our data or information using the following citation:
Gardner, D.E., 1955. Beach sand heavy-mineral deposits of eastern Australia. Bulletin  028. Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics, Canberra.

Abstract

Beach sand deposits along the Australian east coast (Gardner, 1951 a, b) have yielded a large part of the world supply of zircon and rutile since the year 1936. During 1953 the returns from the export of these minerals amounted to more than £2,000,000. In addition the black sands contain a small proportion of monazite, which is a source of cerium and of thorium, a fissionable element that may be used for the generation of atomic power. From a comparatively small beginning the mid-1930's the beach-sand industry grew rapidly during the war and early post-war years. Little was known of the distribution and reserves of the deposits; hence the Bureau of :Mineral Resources undertook a detailed investigation of the coastal area between Southport, Queensland, and Woody Head a little north of the mouth of the Clarence River, New South Wales. The primary object of the survey was to determine the reserves of monazite and therefore of thorium; the reserves of zircon, rutile, and ilmenite were also determined. In this report the source rocks of the sand and heavy minerals are considered in a brief outline of the physiography and general geology of the country between the coast and the main divide. The deposits are described and their origin and distribution discussed in connexion with late Pleistocene and recent changes, in sea level. The reserves and distribution of the heavy minerals arc broadly summarised, and more details of reserves and dimensions of deposits and overburden are given in descriptions of the individual areas.
Google map showing geographic bounding box with values North bound -10.0 East bound 155.0 West bound 112.0 South bound -44.0
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Product Type/Sub Type

dataset - GA Publication - Bulletin

Constraints

license
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia Licence

IP Owner

Commonwealth of Australia (Geoscience Australia)

Author(s)

Date (publication)

1955

Product Type

dataset

Topic Category

geoscientificInformation

Keywords

GA Publication
Bulletin
Earth Sciences

Resource Language

English

Resource Character Set

utf8

Resource Security Classification

unclassified

Geographic Extent

North bound
-10.0
East bound
155.0
West bound
112.0
South bound
-44.0

Lineage

Unknown

Digital Transfer Options

onLine

DISTRIBUTION Format

pdf

Distributor

Role
distributor
Organisation Name
Geoscience Australia
City
Canberra
Administrative Area
ACT
Postal Code
2601
Country
Australia
Email Address

Metadata File Identifier

a05f7892-7fe2-7506-e044-00144fdd4fa6

Metadata Standard Name

ANZLIC Metadata Profile: An Australian/New Zealand Profile of AS/NZS ISO 19115:2005, Geographic information - Metadata

Metadata Standard Version

1.1

Metadata Date Stamp

1996-10-29

METADATA SECURITY CLASSIFICATION

unclassified

Metadata Contact

Role
pointOfContact
Organisation Name
Geoscience Australia
City
Canberra
Administrative Area
ACT
Postal Code
2601
Country
Australia
Email Address
Downloads
For information on acquiring this product,
please contact Geoscience Australia Client Services via:

fax:
+61 2 6249 9960; or
phone:
1800 800 173 (within Australia);
 
+61 2 6249 9966 (outside Australia).