Citation

Exon, N.F., 1991. Research Cruise Proposal : BMR Cruise 106 : Seabed Morphology and Offshore Resources Around Christmas Island, Indian Ocean : Project 121.32, BMR Offshore Sedimentary Basins Program. Record  1991/092. Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics, Canberra.

Abstract

Christmas Island is an Australian territory lying south of Java inthe Indian Ocean, at about 10°30'S and 105°40'E. It lies on oceanic crust of Late Cretaceous age, is moving north at 7cm/year, andis being raised as it climbs the bulge on the southern flank of the Java Trench. The island itself consists of Cainozoic volcanics and limestone, and has been extensively mined for Pliocene phosphate. It covers an area of 140 km2 , and rises 360 m above sea level. Australia has declared a 200 mile Fisheries Zone around the island, and the aim of this BMR investigation is to assess the seabed morphology, sediment thickness, and offshore mineral resources in a future Exclusive Economic Zone. This information will be of particular value to the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, when Australia negotiates a Christmas Island seabed boundary with Indonesia to the north. Present knowledge indicates that oceanic crust is generally at 5000-6000 m around Christmas Island, and that it is overlain by 100-300m of pelagic sediment which thickens northward toward the Java Trench. A number of volcanic ridges trend generally northeast or north-northeast, and are as shallow as 1200 m below sea level. Christmas Island itself sits on such a ridge. Shallow-water limestones and manganese oxide crusts have been dredged from the ridges. Deepseacoring programs show that pelagic foraminiferal ooze and marl give way to siliceous (diatom-radiolarian) ooze and red clay below 5000 in water depth. Volcanic ash from Indonesia is an additional component of the sediment. Reconnaissance sampling has shown that manganese nodules are quite common in the deep sea, and that they carry moderate grades of the valuable metals, copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co). In a fairly similar geological setting to the west, in the central Indian Ocean, India has pioneer investor status for a nodule mine site of 150,000 square kilometres. At this site the grade of Cu+Ni+Co is about 2.55%,and nodule abundance is 5-7.5% of wet nodules per square metre, figures which suggest that the site has long-term economic potential. The present project will commence with a 28-day geoscience cruise of R.V. "Rig Seismic" from 7 January to 4 February, 1992. The plan isto acquire about 2500 km of high-resolution reflection seismic and bathymetric data, to define seabed morphology and to allow regional mapping of sediment thickness and facies. The seismic data will beused as the basis of a sampling campaign to investigate sediment type, manganese nodule abundance and metal grade on the deepsea floor, and manganese crust thickness and metal grade on the volcanic ridges. The end result will be a comprehensive review of the geology and mineral resources of the Christmas Island offshore zone.
Google map showing geographic bounding box with values North bound -10.0 East bound 107.0 West bound 102.0 South bound -13.0
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Product Type/Sub Type

dataset - GA Publication - Record

Constraints

license
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia Licence

IP Owner

Commonwealth of Australia (Geoscience Australia)

Author(s)

Date (publication)

1991

Product Type

dataset

Topic Category

geoscientificInformation

Keywords

GA Publication
Record
marine
morphology
marine survey
Earth Sciences

Resource Language

English

Resource Character Set

utf8

Resource Security Classification

unclassified

Geographic Extent

North bound
-10.0
East bound
107.0
West bound
102.0
South bound
-13.0

Lineage

Legacy product, lineage not available

Digital Transfer Options

onLine

DISTRIBUTION Format

pdf

Distributor

Role
distributor
Organisation Name
Geoscience Australia
City
Canberra
Administrative Area
ACT
Postal Code
2601
Country
Australia
Email Address

Metadata File Identifier

a05f7892-7509-7506-e044-00144fdd4fa6

Metadata Standard Name

ANZLIC Metadata Profile: An Australian/New Zealand Profile of AS/NZS ISO 19115:2005, Geographic information - Metadata

Metadata Standard Version

1.1

Metadata Date Stamp

1996-10-30

METADATA SECURITY CLASSIFICATION

unclassified

Metadata Contact

Role
pointOfContact
Organisation Name
Geoscience Australia
City
Canberra
Administrative Area
ACT
Postal Code
2601
Country
Australia
Email Address
Downloads
For information on acquiring this product,
please contact the Geoscience Australia Sales Centre via:

fax:
+61 2 6249 9960; or
phone:
1800 800 173 (within Australia);
 
+61 2 6249 9966 (outside Australia).

Please note that support hours are 9 am to 5 pm weekdays