Abstract

The Munni Munni Complex (T Nd CHUR model age 2.85 Ga), located in the west Pilbara block of Western Australia, is one of the best preserved layered intrusions in Australia. Exposed over an area of 4 X 9 km, it is composed of a lower 1,850-m-thick ultramafic zone and an overlying gabbroic zone which has a minimum thickness of 3,630 m. The ultramafic zone contains rhythmically layered dunite, lherzolite, olivine websterite, clinopyroxenite, and websterite, with orthopyroxenite, norite, chromitite, and platiniferous websterite prominent near the top of the zone. The gabbroic zone consists of gabbronorite, anorthositic gabbro, and minor anorthosite which display a pronounced tholeiitic fractionation trend. The order of appearance of cumulus mineral assemblages in the complex is olivine, olivine + clinopyroxene, clinopyroxene + olivine, clinopyroxene, clinopyroxene + orthopyroxene, orthopyroxene + chromite, and plagioclase + clinopyroxene + ?orthopyroxene. This sequence is at variance with major platinum-group element-bearing intrusions in which crystallization of orthopyroxene generally precedes that of clinopyroxene.Trace-element data, obtained on samples collected across the entire intrusion to investigate the effects of crystal fractionation and S evolution on the distribution of the platinum-group elements, show that in the sulfide-undersaturated ultramafic zone, Pt, Pd, Au, Cu, S, Se, Cs, Rb, St, and Zr behaved incompatibly and were concentrated in the melt during fractionation. The S content of the melt began to increase above the 700-m stratigraphic level of the ultramafic zone, but Pt, Pd, and Au contents increased above background levels of approximately 3 ppb to 3 ppm Pt + Pd only with the attainment of sulfide saturation at approximately the 1,830-m stratigraphic level. The concentration trends of Zr, St, Cs, Rb, and Cu paralleled that of S, but Ir and Ni largely partitioned with early crystallizing olivine and decreased in concentration with increasing fractionation. In contrast to the ultramafic zone, Pt, Pd, It, and Au have depletion trends in the sulfide-saturated gabbroic zone. Hence, the evolution of S largely governed the behavior of the platinum-group elements during the fractionation of the Munni Munni magma(s).The platinum-group element mineralization occurs immediately below the ultramafic-gabbroic contact. It resulted from the combined magmatic processes of crystal fractionation (as evidenced by increasing Cu/(Cu + Ni) ratios and incompatible element trends with stratigraphic height), and magma mixing. Two models are presented. In model 1, a hot, buoyant sulfide-saturated tholeiitic magma (containing 1,700-2,600 ppm S) rose through the density stratified platinum-group element-enriched, sulfide-undersaturated resident ultramafic magma (containing 530 ppm S) until reaching its own density level near the top of the chamber, where it spread out laterally for a distance of at least 12 km. Due to crystallization of plagioclase and subsequent Fe-enrichment [of the melt], the density of the gabbroic melt increased until it overturned and mixed with the platinum-group element-enriched fractionated parts of the ultramafic magma. Model 2 is similar to model 1, except that it involves the fractionation and internal mixing of one magma. In both models, magma mixing triggered sulfide saturation in the hybrid magma and established a high R factor (the silicate/sulfide mass ratio).
Google map showing geographic bounding box with values North bound -20.0 East bound 121.1 West bound 116.1 South bound -23.0
Related Links
For information on acquiring this product,
please contact the Geoscience Australia Sales Centre via:

fax:
+61 2 6249 9960; or
phone:
1800 800 173 (within Australia);
 
+61 2 6249 9966 (outside Australia).

Please note that support hours are 9 am to 5 pm weekdays

Product Type/Sub Type

dataset - External Publication - Scientific Journal Paper

Constraints

license
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia Licence

IP Owner

Commonwealth of Australia (Geoscience Australia)

Author(s)

Date (publication)

1989

Product Type

dataset

Topic Category

geoscientificInformation

Keywords

External Publication
Scientific Journal Paper
Earth Sciences

Resource Language

English

Resource Character Set

utf8

Resource Security Classification

unclassified

Geographic Extent

North bound
-20.0
East bound
121.1
West bound
116.1
South bound
-23.0

Lineage

Unknown

Digital Transfer Options

onLine

Distributor

Role
distributor
Organisation Name
Geoscience Australia
City
Canberra
Administrative Area
ACT
Postal Code
2601
Country
Australia
Email Address

Metadata File Identifier

a05f7892-faa0-7506-e044-00144fdd4fa6

Metadata Standard Name

ANZLIC Metadata Profile: An Australian/New Zealand Profile of AS/NZS ISO 19115:2005, Geographic information - Metadata

Metadata Standard Version

1.1

Metadata Date Stamp

2010-11-16

METADATA SECURITY CLASSIFICATION

unclassified

Metadata Contact

Role
pointOfContact
Organisation Name
Geoscience Australia
City
Canberra
Administrative Area
ACT
Postal Code
2601
Country
Australia
Email Address
Related Links
For information on acquiring this product,
please contact the Geoscience Australia Sales Centre via:

fax:
+61 2 6249 9960; or
phone:
1800 800 173 (within Australia);
 
+61 2 6249 9966 (outside Australia).

Please note that support hours are 9 am to 5 pm weekdays