Mineral Resources

Information on mineral resources in Australia, their uses, production and export figures, resource estimates and links to precompetitive products to facilitate exploration activity


Link to Australia's Identified Mineral Resources

Australia's Identified Mineral Resources

Information on mineral resources in Australia, their uses, production and export figures, resource estimates and links to precompetitive products to facilitate exploration activity


Bauxite

Australia is the world's largest producer of bauxite and a significant global supplier of high value downstream products, including refined alumina and smelted aluminium metal.


Black Coal

In Australia, the term "black coal" includes anthracite, bituminous coal and sub-bituminous coal. Black coal occurs in all States and the Northern Territory.


Brown Coal

Australian brown coal or lignite is a low rank, low ash, high moisture content coal. Found in all Australian states, brown coal is primarily used to generate electricity in domestic power stations.


Link to Australia's Identified Mineral Resources

Copper

Australia is one of the world's top six copper producers with substantial copper resources located in all States and the Northern Territory.


Link to Australia's Identified Mineral Resources

Diamond

Geoscience Australia provides a range of geoscience data and information to encourage and support exploration for new diamond resources in Australia.


Link to Australia's Identified Mineral Resources

Gold

Australia has substantial gold resources which are located in all States and the Northern Territory. Gold attracts Australia's second largest exploration expenditure.


Graphite

Graphite is a soft, black, lustrous mineral composed of carbon in hexagonal crystalline form. It is found in three different forms, each occurring in different types of ore deposit.


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Iron Ore

Iron constitutes about five per cent of the Earth's crust and is the fourth most abundant element in the crust. Australia is one of the world's major iron ore producers.


Lithium

Lithium is recovered from both mineral deposits and from salts and has a range of uses in chemical and technical applications.


Link to Australia's Identified Mineral Resources

Manganese

Manganese is the twelfth most abundant element in the Earth's crust and is found in many minerals with the two main manganese minerals being pyrolusite and rhodochrosite.


Magnesite

Crude magnesite (MgCO3, the main magnesium ore) is used in chemicals and agriculture; after conversion to magnesia (MgO) it is used in the cement, glass, steel and metallurgical industries.


Minerals Sands

The principal components of heavy mineral sands are rutile (TiO2), ilmenite (FeTiO3), zircon (ZrSiO4) and monazite ([Ce,La,Nd,Th]PO4). These minerals are an important source of titanium and zircon.


Molybdenum

A silvery metal with a grey tinge, Molybdenum is used mostly in steels and superalloys to enhance strength, toughness, thermal and corrosion resistance, and to reduce brittleness.


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Nickel

Nickel has relatively low electrical and thermal conductivities, has strength and toughness at elevated temperatures, is easily shaped into thin wires and flat sheets and is capable of being magnetised.


Niobium

Niobium is a soft, grey metal. Not found naturally in its elemental form, Niobium is most commonly found in combination with tantalum in the mineral columbite.


Offshore Mineral Resources

Australia has jurisdiction over a wide variety of offshore mineral deposits within its continental shelf and 200 nautical mile economic exclusion zone.


Phosphate

Phosphate rock is a general term referring to rock with high concentrations of phosphate minerals. Phosphate rock is primarily mined to produce chemical fertilisers for agriculture.


Potash

Potash (potassic fertiliser) deposits in Australia mainly occur as potassium chloride, potassium sulphate or potassium-magnesium sulphate in lake deposits but also occur as hard-rock sanidine feldspar deposits.


Platinum-Group Elements

The platinum-group elements are a group of six elements, - platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), rhodium (Rh), iridium (Ir), osmium (Os), and ruthenium, (Ru).


Rare Earth Elements

The rare earths are a relatively abundant group of elements which range in crustal abundance from cerium at 60 parts per million to lutetium at 0.5 parts per million.


Shale Oil

Shale oil comes from organic-rich oil shale which yields substantial quantities of oil and combustible gas after heating (retorting) and distillation. Oil shale occurs in Queensland, NSW, Tasmania, South Australia and Western Australia.


Tantalum

Tantalum is a hard, blue-grey metal that is highly resistant to corrosion. Tantalite is the most important tantalum ore mineral and large deposits of tantalum exist in Australia.


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Thorium

Thorium is a naturally occurring slightly radioactive metal, three to five times more abundant than uranium. The most common source of thorium is a rare earth phosphate mineral, monazite.


Tin

Primarily obtained from the mineral cassiterite, tin is a malleable and ductile, silvery-white metal that is resistant to corrosion and is often used as a protective coating on other metals.


Tungsten

Tungsten has the highest melting point of all pure metals and together with its alloys is amongst the hardest of all metals. Tungsten is found in Queensland, Tasmania, Western Australia and the Northern Territory.


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Uranium

Uranium is a mildly radioactive element which averages one to four parts per million in the Earth's crust.


Vanadium

Vanadium is a soft, ductile, silver-grey metal that is used primarily to make metal alloys for high-strength steel production. Most of Australia's Economic Demonstrated Resources (EDR) of vanadium are in Western Australia.


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Zinc-Lead-Silver

Zinc, lead and silver often occur together in mineral deposits. Australia attracts significant investment in zinc, lead and silver exploration making up around five per cent of all of Australia's mineral exploration each year.