This information has not been updated since 2013 and is provided for general reference purposes. For the latest data, please see Australia's Identified Mineral Resources 2016.
The principal components of heavy mineral sands are rutile (TiO2), ilmenite (FeTiO3), zircon (ZrSiO4) and monazite ([Ce,La,Th]PO4). Minor amounts of xenotime (YPO4) a yttrium-bearing phosphate hosting 54 to 65% rare earth oxides (REO), and comprising other rare earth elements (REE) such as erbium and cerium, and thorium. Rutile, ilmenite, leucoxene (an alteration product of ilmenite) are used predominantly in the production of titanium dioxide pigment. The titanium-bearing minerals rutile and leucoxene are sometimes blended to produce HiTi (High grade titanium with a TiO2 content of 70% to 95%) which is used as a feedstock to produce titanium dioxide, make titanium metals for the aerospace industry and in the manufacture of welding rods. Less than 4% of total titanium mineral production, typically rutile, is used in making titanium sponge metal. Zircon is used as an opacifier for glazes on ceramic tiles, in refractories and for the foundry industry. Recently there has been renewed interest in monazite as a source of thorium for possible use to generate electricity in thorium nuclear reactors.
Economic Demonstrated Resources (EDR) of ilmenite decreased by 1.0% to 187.0 million tonnes (Mt) in 2012, down from 188.9 Mt in 2011. About 45.0% of Australia¿s EDR of ilmenite is in Western Australia (WA) and 19.3% is in Queensland (Qld) with Victoria (Vic) containing 21.8%, New South Wales (NSW) 10.3% and South Australia (SA) 3.6%.
EDR of rutile, which includes some leucoxene in WA, decreased by 2.2% from 27.2 Mt in 2011 to 26.6 Mt in 2012. Victoria has the largest share of Australia¿s rutile EDR with 42.8% followed by Qld (20.0%), WA (17.6%), NSW (16.5%) and SA (2.5%).
EDR of zircon increased from 46.6 Mt in 2011 to 47.4 Mt in 2012 with Vic (34.5%), WA (29.3%) and Qld (16.2%) accounting for most of Australia¿s zircon EDR. The balance was in SA (11.7%) and NSW (7.7%).
Australia¿s Subeconomic Demonstrated Resources of ilmenite, rutile and zircon in 2012 amounted to 30.2 Mt of ilmenite, with marginal decrease from 30.3 Mt in 2011, a decrease to 0.36 Mt of rutile from 0.56 Mt in previous year, and 1.17 Mt of zircon, compared to 1.27 Mt in 2011.
Inferred Resources of ilmenite increased by 20.8% in 2012 to 219.9 Mt. Victoria has the largest proportion of inferred ilmenite resources with 40.6% of the Australian total followed by WA (31.7%), NSW (12.6%) and Qld (7.2%).
Inferred Resources of rutile increased in 2012 to 42.2 Mt from 40.2 Mt in 2011. Victoria has the largest share of Australia¿s Inferred Resources of rutile with 63.3% of the total followed by NSW (21.6%), WA (5.8%), Qld (4.6%) and SA (4.6%).
Inferred Resources of zircon increased in 2012 to 68.3 Mt from 62.1 Mt in 2011. Victoria is the main holder of zircon Inferred Resources with 70.4% of the Australian total, followed by WA (10.7%), NSW (9.7%) and Qld (4.4%).
A significant portion of mineral sands EDR is in areas quarantined from mining because they are largely incorporated in national parks and other areas with restricted access to mining. Geoscience Australia estimates that around 16% of ilmenite, 14% of rutile and 14% of zircon EDR is unavailable for mining.
Deposits in this category include Moreton Island, Bribie Island and Fraser Island, the Cooloola sand mass, the Byfield sand mass and the Shoalwater Bay area in Qld as well as the Yuraygir, Bundjalung, Hat Head and Myall Lakes National Parks in NSW.
About 28% of Australia¿s ilmenite Accessible EDR (AEDR), 31% of rutile AEDR and 36% of zircon AEDR comprise Reserves as defined under the Joint Ore Reserve Committee (JORC) Code.
Duration of Resources
At the rate of production in 2012, Australia¿s AEDR of ilmenite, rutile and zircon is sufficient for an average of 116 years for ilmenite (122 years in 2011), 52 years for rutile (50 years in 2011) and 68 years for zircon (53 years in 2011). However, resources in the JORC Code reserves categories are adequate for only 32 years for ilmenite (33 years in 2011), 16 years for rutile (14 years in 2011), and 25 years for zircon (18 years in 2011). Variations in resource life of the three commodities are based on the AEDR and are the result of changing levels of production as well as changes in AEDR. For example, lower production in response to a fall in demand may create the impression of an increase in resource life, but is not necessarily indicative of an increase in resources. Such trends may be reversed with resumption of demand and, as a consequence, represent snapshots of the resource life at that time.
Full expenditure on exploration for mineral sands has not been available since 2010. The available exploration figures for mineral sands for the March, September and December quarters in 2012 totalled $31.2 million. The exploration figure for the June quarter in 2012 was not available.
In 2012, Australia produced 1.344 Mt of ilmenite, 439 000 tonnes of rutile, 228 000 tonnes of leucoxene and 605 000 tonnes of zircon compared with 1.277 Mt of ilmenite, 474 000 tonnes of rutile, 225 000 tonnes of leucoxene and 762 000 tonnes of zircon in 2011. About 2.023 Mt of ilmenite, 342 000 tonnes of rutile and 680 000 tonnes of zircon was exported in 2012, with exports exceeding production for ilmenite in 2012. Australia also produced 480 000 tonnes of synthetic rutile in 2012 compared with 503 000 tonnes in 2011.
According to Iluka Resources Ltd1 the global zircon demand remained weak throughout 2012. The demand for high grade titanium dioxide was high in the first quarter in 2012 but softened in the second half of the year.
According to Geoscience Australia and the United States Geological Survey data, Australia¿s EDR of rutile and zircon in 2012 was the world¿s largest economic resources with 52%, and 53%, respectively. Australia also has the second largest share of the world¿s ilmenite with 15%, behind China, which has 31%. Other major country rankings include India (13%), South Africa (10%) and Brazil (7%) for ilmenite, South Africa (16%) and India (15%) for rutile and South Africa (24%) and India (6%) for zircon.
During 2012, world production of ilmenite increased by 2.9% to 11.30 Mt and rutile increased by 2.9% to 790 000 tonnes while world production of zircon decreased by 2.8% to 1.41 Mt. Australia is the largest producer of rutile with 55.9% of the world roduction followed by South Africa with 16.7% and Sierra Leone with 12.7%. Australia is the second largest producer of ilmenite with 11.9% after South Africa with 17.3%, followed by Canada and China with 11.8% each, and is the largest producer of zircon with 42.9% followed by South Africa with 28.4% and China with 10.6%.
Companies which produced heavy mineral sands during 2012 were Iluka Resources Ltd, Cristal Mining Australia Limited (formerly Bemax Resources Limited), Tronox Limited and Doral Mineral Sands Pty Ltd, all in WA, and Sibelco Australia Ltd in Qld. Iluka and Cristal Mining also produced heavy minerals in the Murray Basin in Vic and NSW and Murray Zircon Pty Ltd in SA. MZI Resources Limited continued mining of heavy mineral sand deposits on the Tiwi Islands off the Northern Territory (NT).
Iluka¿s heavy mineral sand operations in WA are located in two regions, the mid-west region about 150 kilometres (km) north of Perth and in the State¿s southwest region south of Perth.
The coastal mid-west region comprises the main mines of Eneabba (two wet concentrators, five mining units). The region includes the company¿s Narngulu facility at Geraldton comprising mineral separation, zircon finishing and two synthetic rutile kilns (SR kilns 3 and 4) as well as port operations and storage facilities at Geraldton. Iluka¿s Narngulu plant processes the heavy mineral ;concentrates (HMC) from local mines in WA as well as its Jacinth-Ambrosia mine in the Eucla Basin in SA.
Another mineral separation plant, as well as SR kilns 1 and 2, are located at North Capel in the southwest region of WA, which also hosts Iluka¿s heavy minerals mine at South Tutunup.
According to Iluka¿s review of operations in 2012, coincident cyclic weakness in both zircon and high grade titanium dioxide demand led to a deterioration of demand in 2012 which was worse than that experienced at the height of the global financial crisis in 20092.
Mining at Eneabba continued throughout 2012, after recommencing in December 2011, with processing of Eneabba sourced heavy mineral concentrate at the Narngulu mineral separation plant commencing from the first quarter of 2012. The Narngulu mineral separation plant was upgraded to accommodate an additional 300 000 tonnes of Eneabba heavy mineral concentrate. Mining operations at Tutunup South in southwest Western Australian continued during 2012. Tutunup South is an ilmenite feed source for synthetic rutile kiln 2. Iluka operated its main kiln, synthetic rutile kiln 2 at a reduced feed rate of approximately 60% of capacity in response to lower demand in the second half of the year. Iluka also deferred its planned recommencement of its synthetic rutile kiln 1 from the fourth quarter of 2012. A trial parcel of Virginia ilmenite from USA was processed through synthetic rutile kiln 3. Preliminary results indicate a high titanium dioxide grade is achievable along with other favourable product characteristics.
lluka is undertaking a pre-feasibility study for the Cataby mineral sands deposit north of Perth. Cataby is a high quality chloride ilmenite deposit which is expected to also produce zircon during its initial years. The pre-feasibility study is expected to be complete by mid-2013.
In 2012 production of heavy mineral sand commodities from Iluka¿s mining and processing activities from the Perth Basin in WA and the Eucla Basin in SA amounted to 86 600 tonnes of saleable ilmenite, 204 000 tonnes of upgradeable ilmenite (upgradeable to synthetic rutile), 248 300 tonnes of synthetic rutile and 158 200 tonnes of zircon.
Iluka reported in 2013 March quarterly report that, because of persisting low demand, it was planning to idle Eneabba and the Tutunup South mines, the synthetic rutile kiln 2, and the Narngulu separation Plant 2.
In the Eucla Basin in SA, Iluka operates the Jacinth-Ambrosia mine and owns the nearby satellite deposits of Tripitaka, Typhoon, Atacama and the Sonoran. The heavy mineral concentrates from the Jacinth-Ambrosia mine are transported 270 km by road to the Port of Thevenard near Ceduna, before being sent about 2500 km by sea to Geraldton in WA for mineral separation at Iluka¿s upgraded Narngulu Plant 2 in the mid-west region. The Sonoran deposit is similar to Atacama, but differs from the Jacinth-Ambrosia deposit in that it contains a zircon component in the heavy mineral concentrate of around 15% which compares with around 50% for the Jacinth-Ambrosia deposit. Iluka announced in its March 2013 quarterly report3 that it has undertaken a scoping study on the Sonoran, Atacama and Typhoon satellite deposits adjacent to the Jacinth-Ambrosia operation. Chloride ilmenite from these deposits is expected to be suitable as a feed source to lluka's synthetic rutile kilns or for direct sale. The deposits would also produce associated zircon. The company plans to progress the potential development of one or more of these deposits through a pre-feasibility study.
Iluka operates a mineral separation plant at Hamilton in Vic to produce the final specification rutile and zircon. The mineral separation plant processes feedstock from the Douglas project near Horsham in western Vic and from the Murray Basin Stage 2 development at Kulwin, 30 km west of Ouyen in northwest Vic. Iluka reported in its annual review for 2012 that mining and concentration operations at Douglas were completed in the first half of 2012. Mining at the first of the northern Murray Basin deposits, Kulwin, also ceased in mid-February as planned, with the mining and processing equipment relocated to the Woornack, Rownack and Pirro group of deposits. Commissioning of Woornack, Rownack and Pirro commenced in mid-April, with heavy mineral concentrate production in early May. Plant alterations and installation of additional equipment at the end of 2012 allowed Iluka to produce a combination of sulphate and chloride ilmenite for sale or for use in synthetic rutile upgrading. This represents the commercialisation of a significant quantity of ilmenite within the deposit which previously was considered to have no commercial value.
Another group of deposits are located at Euston in NSW named Castaway, Kerribee, Earl, Dispersion and Koolaman.
Production from Iluka¿s Murray Basin operations in 2012 totalled 170 300 tonnes of rutile, 96 500 tonnes of saleable ilmenite, 72 300 tonnes of upgradeable ilmenite and 135 600 tonnes of zircon.
Balranald and Nepean are two rutile-rich deposits in the northern Murray Basin in NSW. During the March 2013 quarter a pre-feasibility study for the potential development of the Balranald and Nepean deposits was completed. The deposits provide the potential for approximately eight years of rutile and associated zircon production. In light of weak market conditions, the planned definitive feasibility study for these deposits will be deferred. In its March 2013 quarterly report Iluka stated that it will proceed with all necessary regulatory approvals and mine design work but defer the commencement of the definitive feasibility study for at least 12 months (until 2014).
The heavy mineral resources/reserves held by Cristal Mining Australia Limited (formerly Bemax Resources Limited) are located in old shorelines in two provinces, the Murray Basin in Vic and NSW, and the southwest region of WA.
The company¿s operations in the Murray Basin include the Ginkgo and Snapper mines and a mineral separation plant at Broken Hill in western NSW.
The heavy mineral sand resources in the Murray Basin were last reported by Bemax Resources in 2009 (95.1 Mt of contained heavy mineral). Bemax no longer publishes its resources for individual deposits and regions. The resources for either the Murray Basin or the southwest region (WA) in 2012 are not known.
Production from Cristal Mining Ginkgo and Snapper mines in 2012 totalled 151 336 tonnes of ilmenite, 107 179 tonne of other titanium minerals (sulphate ilmenite, secondary ilmenite and leucoxene), 46 677 tonnes of zircon, and 80 399 tonnes of rutile4. Cristal Mining reported that resource drilling at Atlas-Campaspe and Crayfish deposits was completed in 2011.
Cristal Mining reported in its March 2013 quarterly report5 that construction of a new 400 000 tonne per annum (tpa) ilmenite upgrade plant located at Broken Hill commenced in July 2012. The commissioning on ore feed stock commenced in January 2013 and completion is expected in second half of 2013.
The feasibility study on the Crayfish deposit was completed in 2012 and an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) was submitted in December 2012 with the company aiming to complete the process by the end of 2013. The EIS for the proposed mining of the Atlas-Campaspe deposits was also submitted to regulators in mid-February and Cristal Mining aims to complete the process by the end of 2013.
In its December 2012 and March 2013 quarterly reports Cristal Mining advised that heavy mineral sand mining in the southwest region of WA at the Gwindinup mine had ended on 31 October 2012 and rehabilitation work had commenced. Development at the Wonnerup mine continued with production expected to commence mid-2013.
Heavy mineral production from Cristal Mining operations in the southwest region in 2012 amounted to 52 521 tonnes of sulphate and secondary ilmenite and leucoxene and 6223 tonnes of zircon.
The heavy mineral sand mines on North Stradbroke island, are owned by Sibelco Australia Limited. There has been no published information on the production of heavy minerals or resources of heavy minerals since 2008.
Tronox Limited now owns and operates an integrated titanium dioxide project in WA incorporating a dredging and dry-mining heavy mineral sands operation at Cooljarloo, dry separation and synthetic rutile plants at Chandala and a titanium dioxide pigment plant at Kwinana. Tronox does not appear to have published mine production figures for 2012. However, its website states that production rates vary but approximately 750 000 tonnes of HMC from about 20 Mt of ore at Cooljarloo are transported around 100 km south via truck to the Chandala mineral separation plant/synthetic rutile metallurgical complex at Muchea where the HMC is separated into ilmenite, natural rutile, leucoxene and zircon.
Mining of the MZI Resources Ltd¿s Leithbridge South deposit, on Tiwi Islands (NT) was completed on 14 January 2013. MZI Resources is planning to complete further drilling and commence feasibility studies in 2013 on its Kilimiraka heavy mineral sand deposit in the southeast of Bathurst Island which has an Inferred Resource of over 890 000 tonnes of HMC. Meanwhile, MZI Resources announced in its March 2013 quarterly report6 that its Keysbrook in southwest WA had a 60% increase in Measured, Indicated and Inferred Resources totalling 8.8 Mt at 2.4% heavy minerals. MZI Resources has executed an agreement with Doral Pty Ltd for toll treatment and capital works program to process the heavy mineral concentrate (HMC) from the Keysbrook deposit. MZI Resources is planning to commence production from the Keysbrook deposit in the first half of 2014 and anticipates the mine life will exceed 15 years.
Murray Zircon Pty Ltd completed re-development of Mindarie heavy mineral sand project in the fourth quarter of 2012. The company restarted mining at Mindarie C West deposit in October 2012 and started ore processing in December 2012. In May 2013, the project was still in commissioning phase with production being ramped up to the project¿s design capacity of 500 tonnes an hour ore feed to the primary concentrator plant (pers. Comm. Patrick Mutz, Chief Executive Officer Murray Zircon Pty Ltd, 30 May 2013).
Gunson Resources Ltd released a revised project study in on 26 February 2013 on its Coburn heavy mineral sand deposits south of Geraldton in WA7. The study envisaged a mine life of 19 years with increased annual production rates of 49 500 tonnes of zircon, 109 000 tonnes of ilmenite, and 23 500 tonnes of high titanium (HiTi) products. The study indicated a net present value for the project of $330 million. Gunson Resources announced on 28 March 2013 that its negotiations for a joint agreement with POSCO had been terminated as a result of difficulties in reaching agreement on commercial and financial conditions because of deterioration in the zircon market.
Image Resources NL holds heavy mineral sand resources in the North Perth Basin and in the Eucla Basin, WA. On 16 July 2013, Image released the results of a feasibility study for the Boonanarring and Atlas deposits, which form part of the company¿s North Perth Basin mineral sand resources. The study indicated a pre-tax net present value of $145 million. Boonanarring and Atlas hold a total resource of 32.3 Mt at 8.1% heavy minerals and plans a mining rate of 3.3 million tonnes per annum (Mtpa) over a projected 10 year mine life. Annual production from the mine is expected to average 89 000 tonnes of ilmenite, 5400 tonnes of leucoxene, 9000 tonnes of rutile and 32 400 tonnes of zircon8.
The Company announced its intention to dispose the Cyclone Extended deposit in the Eucla basin, subject to obtaining an adequate return on historical expenditure but does not intend to pursue the disposal for the time being9. The Cyclone Extended deposit forms a southeast extension of the Cyclone deposit.
In March 2012, Diatreme Resources Ltd released results of a pre-feasibility study on its Cyclone heavy minerals deposit in the Eucla Basin together with a pre-feasibility study pit design which enclosed a Probable Ore Reserve of 97 Mt containing 2.4 Mt heavy minerals, including 770 000 tonnes of zircon at 2.5% heavy mineral cut-off. The pre-feasibility study indicated a potential to mine 10 Mtpa of ore yielding approximately 147 000 tonnes of HMC producing 65 000 tonnes of zircon, 10 000 tonnes of HiTi87 (86.6% TiO2 ) and 46 000 tonnes of HiTi67 (67.3% TiO2 ). The ore reserve is contained within a Measured and Indicated Resource of 136 Mt of ore at 2.3% heavy minerals containing 3.1 Mt of heavy minerals grading 31% zircon, 3% rutile, 6% leucoxene (85-95% TiO2 ), 21% HiTi (70-85% TiO2 ) and 23% altered ilmenite (<70% TiO2 )10. Diatreme announced its December 2012 quarterly report11 that it was continuing with a definitive feasibility study for the Cyclone deposit and anticipated the study will be completed in first half of 2014, with construction and development during 2014-2015 and commissioning and production to commence in 2015. The company was conducting environmental studies also for three road options from the Cyclone deposit to the trans-Australian railway about 270 km to the south.
Astron Ltd¿s Donald project in the Murray Basin in Vic comprises the Donald (WIM 250) and Jackson (WIM 200) deposits located 240 km west-north-west of Melbourne. On 1 December 2011, the company announced Measured, Indicated and Inferred Resource for the deposits totalling 2630 Mt grading at 5.3% heavy minerals. The heavy mineral concentrate was reported to grade at 19% zircon, 33% ilmenite, 7% rutile and 12% leucoxene. Astron Ltd reported that the zircon content amounted to about 37 Mt. These resources are located within a larger resource totalling Measured, Indicated and Inferred Resources at 4040 Mt grading at 4.8% heavy minerals12.
In June 2012, Astron Ltd announced Proved and Probable Reserves within the Donald project totalling 461 Mt at 5.9% heavy minerals, which equates to about 27.199 Mt of heavy minerals at about 18.6% zircon, 33.9% ilmenite, 18.6% leucoxene and 6.8% rutile13. Astron also reported that it engaged an independent technical consultant to conduct a review of the company¿s proposed hot acid leaching process designed to reduce the level of uranium and thorium in its Donald zircon product from around 1000 parts per million (ppm) to around 500 ppm and minimize impurities such as iron, titanium, aluminium and phosphorus. The project is planned to be a 7.5 Mtpa mining operation producing 0.5 Mtpa of heavy mineral concentrate for export to China.
Astron reported in its March quarterly report for 2013 that work continued on a definitive feasibility study, including further work on more accurately defining operating and capital expenditure. Cost studies are being undertaken for a potential alternative plan with some plant located in China.
On 28 August 2012, Sheffield Resources Ltd announced that its West Mine, Yandanooka, Durack and Ellengail deposits in the Eneabba region north of Perth in WA had Measured, Indicated and Inferred Resources totalling 226 Mt grading at 2.3% heavy minerals amounting to 5.29 Mt of heavy minerals14. The heavy mineral concentrate is estimated to grade at 11% zircon, 6.7% rutile, 6.4% leucoxene and 63.5% ilmenite.
On 18 December 2012 Sheffield Resources also announced a resource for its Thunderbird mineral sand deposit near Derby in the Kimberley Region of WA. The Indicated and Inferred Resources total 1.37 billion tonnes at 6.1% heavy minerals (at a cut-off of 2% heavy minerals) containing 5.7 Mt of zircon, 1.3 Mt rutile, 3.6 Mt leucoxene and 24 Mt ilmenite.
The deposit occurs over the Canning Basin and represents a new unexplored heavy mineral province. Other companies exploring the area include Iluka Resources Ltd and Diatreme Resources Ltd.
On 15 May 2012, Crossland Uranium Mines Limited announced resources for an inland placer deposit, the Charley Creek deposit, containing zircon, monazite and xenotime (YPO4). The company reported that the deposit is an alluvial outwash which comprises an Indicated Resource of 387 Mt containing 27 000 tonnes of xenotime, 161 000 tonnes of monazite and 196 000 tonnes of zircon. The xenotime and monazite were stated to contain about 14 000 tonnes of total REOs. In addition, another 418 Mt of Inferred Resources was reported to hold about 121 000 tonnes of REOs in about 31 000 tonnes of xenotime and 167 000 tonnes of monazite, as well as 220 000 tonnes of zircon15. An earlier report by Crossland dated 5 April 2012 stated that the equivalent monazite in the HMC (calculated from chemical analyses) is 87 372 grams per tonne (g/t) and equivalent xenotime is 8310g/t while the HMC in the alluvium was 2.54%16. On 15 April 2013 the company released the results of a scoping study which estimated a net present value for the project of $302 million and a capex of $156 million. Crosslands reported that it was working towards a production date of 201617.
Metallica Minerals Limited reported that it was progressing its Urquhart Point heavy mineral sands project in far north Queensland towards its planned development, subject to granting of a mining lease, obtaining zircon-rutile product off-take agreements and adequate project funding. The Urquhart Point mining lease is expected to be granted towards the end of 201318. The Urquhart Point deposits are approximately five km southwest of Weipa on the Gulf of Carpentaria in Qld. The zircon and rutile deposit has an Indicated Resource of 2.8 Mt at 7% heavy mineral sands to a maximum depth of three metres. On 26 April 2012, Metallica also announced an Inferred Resource for its Glenaladale-Stockdale deposit in east Gippsland (Vic) amounting to 1700 Mt of ore grading 2.2% heavy minerals with a heavy mineral content of 38 Mt. An Inferred Resource of 360 Mt within the larger resource was reported as grading 2.7% heavy minerals containing 9.7 Mt heavy minerals, including 1.42 Mt zircon, 0.4 Mt rutile, 4.76 Mt combined titanium minerals and 60 000 tonnes monazite19. The company announced on 17 December 2012 that it had decided not to renew its option to acquire the Glenaladale-Stockdale deposit20.Australian Mineral Resources Pty Ltd has reported resources on their website at http://ilmenite.com.au/bmc-project.html for a residual ilmenite deposits in the Roper River area about 80 km east of Mataranka in the NT. The resources have been released for two deposits, the Buka deposit with 2 298 957 tonnes at 6.05% ilmenite, and the BMC deposit with 2 123 354 tonnes at 4.7% ilmenite with both resources calculated at a cut-off of 2.5% ilmenite.
- Iluka Resources Ltd, 2012. Iluka Review 2012, 64pp.
- Iluka Resources Ltd, 2012. 2012 Full Year Results. Presentation slide pack, 58pp.
- Iluka Resources Ltd, 2013. Iluka March 2013 Quarterly Production Report,12pp.
- Cristal Mining Australia Limited, 2013. December 2012 Quarterly Report, 4pp.
- Cristal Mining Australia Limited, 2013. March 2013 Quarterly Report, 5pp.
- MZI Resources Ltd, 2013. Quarterly activities report for the period ending 31 March 2013, 7pp.
- Gunson Resources Limited, 2013. Optimisation study results ¿ Coburn Zircon Project, 3pp.
- Image Resources NL, 2013. Robust project economics for Boonanarring and Atlas, 53pp.
- Image Resources NL, 2013. Quarterly report for the quarter ended 31 December 2012, 13pp.
- Diatreme Resources Ltd. 2012. Exploration activities report. Quarter ended 31 March 2012. Australian Securities Exchange release, 8pp.
- Diatreme Resources NL, 2013. Exploration activities report. Quarter ended 31 December 2012. Australian Securities Exchange release. 10pp.
- Astron Ltd. 2011. Donald mineral sands project ¿ resource update. Australian Securities Exchange release 1 December 2011. 3pp.
- Astron Ltd. 2012. Donald mineral sands project ¿ review of uranium/thorium wash process and proved ore reserve update. Australian Securities Exchange release 18 June 2012. 4pp.
- Sheffield Resources Ltd. 2012. Eneabba project resource inventory exceeds 5Mt heavy mineral. Australian Securities Exchange release, 28 August 2012. 11pp.
- Crossland Uranium Resources Ltd. 2012. Announcement to the Australian Securities Exchange 15 May 2012. Initial Indicated Resource of 387 Mt containing xenotime/monazite REE mineralization at Charley Creek project, 7pp.
- Crossland Uranium Resources Ltd. 2012. Announcement to the Australian Securities Exchange 5 April 2012, 3pp.
- Crossland Uranium Resources Ltd. 2013. Announcement to the Australian Securities Exchange 15 April 2013. Charley Creek Rare Earth project scoping study results, 54pp.
- Metalllica Minerals Limited, 2013. Company update. Announcement to the Australian Securities Exchange, 8 July, 2013, 1pp.
- Metalllica Minerals Limited, 2012. Maiden heavy mineral sands (HMS) resource Gippsland zircon-rutile HMS project update. Announcement to the Australian Securities Exchange, 26 April, 2012, 9pp.
- Metalllica Minerals Limited, 2012. Gippsland option lapses. Announcement to the Australian Securities Exchange, 17 December, 2012, 1pp.
McKay, A.D., Miezitis, Y., Porritt, K., Britt, A.F., Champion, D.C., Cadman, S., Towner, R., Summerfield, D., Whitaker, A., Huston, D., Jaireth, S., Sexton, M., Schofield, A., Hoatson, D., Senior, A.B. & Carson, L., 2014. Australia's Identified Mineral Resources 2013. Geoscience Australia, Canberra, Australia. http://dx.doi.org/10.11636/1327-1466.2013