Table 2: Ore Reserves

Table 2. Australia's Estimated Ore Reserves1 as at December 2018

This table provides a generally short-term, commercial view of Australia's economic mineral inventory as reported in compliance with the JORC Code by Competent Persons. Reserves may be reported for operating mines, mines on care and maintenance, mines under development and some undeveloped deposits. For further information, Table 1 provides a more immediate view of mineral stocks at operating mines and Table 3 provides a long-term view of potential supply. For a global outlook on Australia's production and resources see Table 5 (World Rankings).

CommodityUnit Proved Ore Reserves Probable Ore Reserves Proved & Probable Ore Reserves2 Total Ore Reserves Mine Production3 Reserve Life
Antimony kt Sb 12.3 52.3 0 64.6 3.574 18
Bauxite Mt 1007 955 0 1962 96.5 20
Black Coal Mt 8467 9354 1894 19715 5785 34
Brown Coal Mt n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 486 n.a.
Chromium kt Cr 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cobalt kt Co 196 437 1 635 4.97 130
Copper Mt Cu 6.13 15.47 0.77 22.38 0.920 24
Diamond Mc 0 24.81 0 24.81 14.01 2
Fluorine kt F 0 0 0 0 0 0
Gold t Au 888 3100 29 4018 315 13
Graphite Mt 0.28 4.89 0 5.17 0 0
Iron
Iron ore Mt 5677 12 690 2 23 106 899 26
Contained iron Mt Fe 2442 5669 1 10 540 557 19
Lead Mt Pb 6.20 6.17 0 12.37 0.469 26
Lithium kt Li 601 2788 0 3389 578 59
Magnesite Mt MgCO3 10 3 24 37 <19 187
Manganese Ore Mt 46 30 17 92 7.010 13
Mineral Sands
Ilmenite Mt 27.7 32.7 0 60.3 1.411 43
Rutile Mt 4.5 4.1 0 8.7 0.211 44
Zircon Mt 11.0 11.1 0 22.1 0.511 44
Molybdenum kt Mo 0 4.2 0 4.2 0 0
Nickel Mt Ni 2.1 4.1 <1 6.2 0.148 42
Niobium kt Nb 58 0 0 58 n.a.12 n.a.
Oil Shale GL 0 0 0 0 0 0
PGE (Pt, Pd, Os, Ir, Ru, Rh) t metal 0 0 0 0 0.54113 n.a.
Phosphate
Phosphate rock14 Mt 12 21 81 113 1.415 81
Contained P2O5 Mt P2O5 2.0 7.0 20 29.0 n.a. n.a.
Potash Mt K2O 1 2 0 3 0 0
Rare Earths16 Mt 1.65 1.19 0 2.84 0.01917 149
Scandium kt Sc 5.52 6.61 0 12.14 0 n.a.
Silver kt Ag 13.56 11.84 0 25.40 1.220 21
Tantalum kt Ta 12.5 32.0 0 44.4 0.0618 740
Thorium kt Th 0 0 0 0 0 0
Tin kt Sn 35 214 0 249 6.9 36
Tungsten kt W 21 195 0 216.0 <119 >10 000
Uranium kt U 90 203 3 296 5.872 50
Vanadium kt V 740 442 0 1182 0 0
Zinc Mt Zn 11.23 12.71 0 23.94 1.112 22

Abbreviations
t = tonne; kt = kilotonnes (1000 t); Mt = million tonnes (1 000 000 t); Mc = million carats (1 000 000 carats); GL = gigalitre (1 000 000 000 L); PGE = platinum group elements (Pt, Pd, Os, Ir, Ru, Rh).
Where an element symbol follows the unit it refers to contained metal content.

Notes
Reserve Life = Ore Reserves ÷ Production.
Figures are rounded so Proved, Probable and Proved & Probable Ore Reserves may not add up to Total Ore Reserves exactly.

1. The majority of Australian Ore Reserves are reported in compliance with the JORC Code, however there are a number of companies that report to foreign stock exchanges using other reporting codes, which are largely equivalent. In addition, Geoscience Australia may hold confidential information for some commodities.

2. 'Proved & Probable Ore Reserves' is a distinct reporting category that is no longer supported by the JORC Code. Some overseas reporting codes still use this category and some historical resources fall into this category.

3. Mining production from Resources and Energy Quarterly, June 2019 published by the Office of the Chief Economist, Department of Industry, Innovation and Science unless otherwise stated. Production data often have a higher level of certainty than reserve and resource estimates and, thus, may be presented with more significant figures

4. Antimony production from company reports (Mandalay Resources Ltd)

5. Black coal production refers to raw coal

6. Brown coal production is a Geoscience Australia estimate from company reports.

7. Cobalt production data from Department of Mines, Industry Regulation and Safety, Western Australian Government, 2018–2019 Major commodities resources file.

8. Lithium production data from Department of Mines, Industry Regulation and Safety, Western Australian Government, 2018–2019 Major commodities resources file.

9. The Department of State Development, South Australia (Report Book 2019/00009) reported magnesite production of 4587 t in 2018. The Queensland Department of Natural Resources and Mines (Queensland Annual Mineral Summary 2017–18) reported magnesite production of 258 859 t in 2017–18.

10. Australian manganese production from company reports and total reported production from Department of Mines, Industry Regulation and Safety, Western Australian Government, 2018–2019 Major commodities resources file.

11. Minerals sands production from company reports.

12. There are no mines producing niobium as a primary product in Australia but it is likely produced as a by-product at some lithium/tantalum operations, but these data have not been reported.

13. Platinum and palladium production data from Department of Mines, Industry Regulation and Safety, Western Australian Government, 2018–2019 Major commodities resources file.

14. Phosphate rock is reported as being economic at grades ranging from 8.7% to 30.2% P2O5.

15. Geoscience Australia estimate based on reported mining production of 555 358 t from Christmas Island in 2018; 1040 t from South Australia in 2018 (Report Book 2019/00009); and 849 927 t from Queensland Department of Natural Resources and Mines (Queensland Annual Mineral Summary 2017–18).

16. Rare earths comprise rare earth oxides (REO) and yttrium oxide (Y2O3).

17. Rare earths production is based on Western Australian production of concentrates from Mount Weld (18 556 t) and from trial mining and processing at Browns Range (2.6 t).

18. Tantalum production data from Department of Mines, Industry Regulation and Safety, Western Australian Government, 2018–2019 Major commodities resources file.

19. Tungsten production from company correspondence (Tasmania Mines Pty Ltd).