Table 2: Ore Reserves

Table 2. Australia's Ore Reserves1 as at December 2017

This table provides a generally short-term, commercial view of Australia's economic mineral inventory as reported in compliance with the JORC Code by Competent Persons. Reserves may be reported for operating mines, mines on care and maintenance, mines under development and some undeveloped deposits. For further information, Table 1 provides a more immediate view of mineral stocks at operating mines and Table 3 provides a long-term view of potential supply. For a global outlook on Australia's production and resources see Table 5 (World Rankings).

CommodityUnit Proved Ore Reserves Probable Ore Reserves Proved & Probable Ore Reserves2 Total Ore Reserves Mine Production 20173 Reserve Life
Antimony kt Sb 14.6 49.7 0 64.3 4.614 14
Bauxite Mt 1032 1138 0 2170 87.9 25
Black Coal (recoverable) Mt 8433 8341 1762 18 536 5595 33
Brown Coal (recoverable) Mt n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 536 n.a.
Chromium kt Cr 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cobalt kt Co 107 199 <1 307 5.87 65
Copper Mt Cu 6.06 16.20 0.77 23.03 0.860 27
Diamond Mc 0 39.01 0 39.01 17.14 2
Fluorine kt F 0 0 0 0 0 0
Gold t Au 883 2961 25 3869 292 13
Graphite Mt 0.06 0.99 0 1.05 0 0
Iron
Iron ore Mt 8447 15 698 2 24 146 883 27
Contained iron Mt Fe 4096 6705 1 10 801 547 20
Lead Mt Pb 6.67 4.93 0 11.60 0.459 25
Lithium kt Li 165 1497 0 1662 21.38 78
Magnesite Mt MgCO3 10 3 24 37 <19 187
Manganese Ore Mt 48 31 22 102 5.610 18
Mineral Sands
Ilmenite Mt 25.7 31.5 0 57.1 1.511 38
Rutile Mt 3.2 3.5 0 6.7 0.311 22
Zircon Mt 9.6 10.4 0 20.0 0.511 40
Molybdenum kt Mo 0 4.2 0 4.2 0 0
Nickel Mt Ni 2.0 3.4 <1 5.4 0.179 30
Niobium kt Nb 58 0 0 58 012 0
Oil Shale GL 0 0 0 0 0 0
PGE (Pt, Pd, Os, Ir, Ru, Rh) t metal 0 0 0 0 <113 n.a.
Phosphate
Phosphate rock14 Mt W W W 81 1.515 54
Contained P2O5 Mt P2O5 7.1 15.5 0 22.7 n.a. n.a.
Potash Mt K2O 0 1.4 0 1.4 0 0
Rare Earths16 Mt 0.81 1.11 0 1.92 0.01717 113
Silver kt Ag 12.91 11.92 0 24.82 1.120 22
Tantalum kt Ta 6.5 7.0 0 13.5 n.a. n.a.
Thorium kt Th 0 0 0 0 0 0
Tin kt Sn 37 118 98 253 7.4 36
Tungsten kt W 21 195 0 216.4 <118 >100 000
Uranium kt U 89 196 0 285 5.344 53
Vanadium kt V 681 394 0 1075 0 0
Zinc Mt Zn 12.55 12.75 0 25.30 0.841 30

Abbreviations
t = tonne; kt = kilotonnes (1000 t); Mt = million tonnes (1 000 000 t); Mc = million carats (1 000 000 carats); GL = gigalitre (1 000 000 000 L); n.a. = not available; W = withheld for confidentiality reasons; PGE = platinum group elements (Pt, Pd, Os, Ir, Ru, Rh).
Where an element symbol follows the unit it refers to contained metal content.

Notes
Reserve Life = Ore Reserves ÷ Production.
Figures are rounded so Proved, Probable and Proved & Probable Ore Reserves may not add up to Total Ore Reserves exactly.

1. The majority of Australian Ore Reserves are reported in compliance with the JORC Code, however there are a number of companies that report to foreign stock exchanges using other reporting codes, which are largely equivalent. In addition, Geoscience Australia may hold confidential information for some commodities.

2. 'Proved & Probable Ore Reserves' is a distinct reporting category that is no longer supported by the JORC Code. Some overseas reporting codes still use this category and some historical resources fall into this category.

3. Source: Resources and Energy Quarterly, June 2018 published by the Office of the Chief Economist, Department of Industry, Innovation and Science unless otherwise stated. Production data often have a higher level of certainty than reserve and resource estimates and, thus, may be presented with more significant figures.

4. Antimony production from company reports.

5. Black coal production refers to raw coal.

6. Brown coal production is a Geoscience Australia estimation and refers to raw coal.

7. Australian cobalt production from company reports and Geoscience Australia estimates.

8. Lithium production is a Geoscience Australia estimate based on Mineral and Petroleum Statistics Digest 2016–17, published by the Department of Mines, Industry Regulation and Safety, Western Australian Government.

9. The Department of State Development, South Australia (Report Book 2017/00014) reported magnesite production of 3241 t in 2017. The Queensland Department of Natural Resources and Mines (Annual mineral and metal statistics) reported magnesite production of 207 603 t in 2016–17.

10. Manganese production from company reports. Minimum estimate as Woodie Woodie production unknown.

11. Minerals sands production from company reports.

12. There are no mines producing niobium as a primary product in Australia. It is possible that niobium is produced as a by-product at some lithium/tantalum operations, but these data have not been reported.

13. The Western Australia Department of Mines, Industry Regulation and Safety (Mineral and Petroleum Statistics Digest 2016–17) reported 783 kg of platinum and palladium produced as by-product in 2016–17.

14. Phosphate rock is reported as being economic at grades ranging from 8.7% to 30.2% P2O5.

15. Geoscience Australia estimate based on reported mining production of 550 140 t from Christmas Island in 2017; 1213 t from South Australia in 2017 (Report Book 2018/00017); and 940 827 t from Queensland in 2016–17 (Queensland Annual Mineral Summary).

16. Rare earths comprise rare earth oxides (REO) and yttrium oxide (Y2O3).

17. Mount Weld in Western Australia supplies rare earth mineral concentrates to the Lynas Advanced Materials Plant (LAMP) in Malaysia. Lynas Corporation Ltd (Quarterly Reports to the ASX) reported that LAMP produced 17 264 t of ready-for-sale rare earth oxides in 2017.

18. Tungsten production from company reports.