How to Cite Geoscience Australia Sources of Information


Information from Geoscience Australia must be acknowledged responsibly whenever it is used. Citing (noting the source of information in the body of another work) and referencing (listing all sources of information in a reference list or bibliography at the end of a work) are important for:

  • acknowledging the ideas, words or data of others
  • enabling others to find and use the original sources


Citing a work within the text needs to be consistent with the reference list. For most works, this means naming the author(s) or editor(s) and year of publication, egs. '(ed. Blewett, 2012)' or '(Henderson & Strusz, 1982)'. Note that authors can be people or corporate bodies (such as 'Geoscience Australia').

Names of corporate authors may be shortened to an abbreviation if sufficiently well-known, eg. '(BMR, 1990)'.

To distinguish multiple works by the same author(s) from the same year in citations and the reference list, a letter suffix is added to the year, eg. '(GA, 2013a)' and '(GA, 2013b)', or just '(GA, 2013a and 2013b)' if cited at the same place in the text.


The following examples illustrate how to reference the most common Geoscience Australia publications and other sources using an author-date system. More detailed information can be found in the Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers, 6th edition, published by Wiley (2002). Note however that there are many different styles (and variations of styles) in use by academic institutions, commercial publishers and other bodies. The examples below do not supersede the specific requirements that may need to be followed when submitting a work for assessment or publication elsewhere; rather, they act as a guide to the elements that should be included when citing or referencing Geoscience Australia works.

While most types of works have common elements, such as author(s), title and year of publication, some may also have unique elements to be included in their references, to clarify what form they take, eg. 'online video'. References to online sources are generally similar to print equivalents, but should always include a full URL (to help readers find the original sources quickly) as well as the date viewed (since the content of online sources can change over time).

Books, Reports and Pamphlets

Blewett, R.S. (ed.) 2012. Shaping a nation: a geology of Australia. Geoscience Australia and ANU E Press, Canberra.

Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics. 1990. Geoscience for Australia's future. BMR, Canberra.

Henderson, G.A.M. & Strusz, D.L. 1982. Rocks and fossils around Canberra. 2nd ed. AGPS: Canberra.

Hoatson, D.M., Jaireth, S. & Miezitis, Y. 2011. The major rare-earth-element deposits of Australia: geological setting, exploration, and resources. Geoscience Australia, Canberra, viewed 7 March 2014,

Przeslawski, R., Radke, L. & Hughes, M. 2009. Temporal and fine-scale variation in the biogeochemistry of Jervis Bay: Jervis Bay post-survey report, February 2009. Record 2009/12. Geoscience Australia, Canberra.

Tingey, R.J. (ed.) 1983. International lexicon of Antarctic stratigraphic nomenclature. Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics, Canberra, and University of Tasmania Dept. of Geology, Hobart.

Chapter or section of a book or report (including published conference abstracts or papers)

Champion, D.C. & Smithies, R.H. 2003. Archaean granites. In: Blevin, P.L., Jones, M. & Chappell, B.W. (eds.), Magmas to mineralisation: the Ishihara symposium. Record 2003/14. Geoscience Australia, Canberra, 13-17.

Pain, C.F., Pillans, B.J., Roach, I.C., Worrall, L. & Wilford, J.R. 2013. Old, flat and red- Australia's distinctive landscape. In: Blewett, R.S. (ed.), Shaping a nation: a geology of Australia. Geoscience Australia and ANU E Press, Canberra, 226-275, viewed 3 August 2013,

Wyborn, L. & Woodcock, R. 2010. Thinking out cloud; the need for increasing virtualisation of Australian geoscience data to underpin cost-effective deep exploration. In: Australian Earth Sciences Convention 2010. Abstracts 98. Geological Society of Australia, Sydney, 398-399.

Journal articles

Hudson, D. & Mueller, N. 2009. Fighting fire with satellite datasets. AusGeo News, 94, viewed 3 August 2012,

Middelmann-Fernandes, M.H. 2010. Flood damage estimation beyond stage-damage functions: an Australian example. Journal of Flood Risk Management, 3, 88-96, viewed 22 October 2013,

Pigram, C.J. & Davies, H.L., 1987. Terranes and accretion history of the New Guinea orogen. BMR Journal of Australian Geology & Geophysics, 10, 193¿211.


(include scale if not included in title or series statement)

Abell, R.S. 1992. Canberra. Australia 1:100,000 geological series, sheet 8727. Bureau of Mineral Resources, Canberra.

Minty, B.R.S., Franklin, R., Milligan, P.R., Richardson, L.M. & Wilford, J. 2010. Radiometric map of Australia. Scale 1:5,000,000. 2nd edn. Geoscience Australia, Canberra.


(note titles of theses are not italicized as they are unpublished works)

Fisher, N.H. 1941. The relation between gold, fineness and conditions of deposition: with special reference to the Morobe goldfield, New Guinea. D.Sc. thesis, University of Queensland, Brisbane.


Geoscience Australia. 2007. Geodata topo 250K. Series 3 for Google Earth, 1:250,000 scale vector map data (DVD). Geoscience Australia, Canberra.

Geoscience Australia Geochronology Laboratory. 2007. Geoscience Australia SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology interim data release July 2007. OZCHRON Geochronology Database. Geoscience Australia, Canberra.


Geoscience Australia. 2013a. MapConnect, viewed 25 September 2013,

Online videos

Geoscience Australia. 2013b. Data cube - the future of Earth Observation data management and analysis, online video, viewed 7 March 2014,


GeoscienceAus. 2014. High resolution LiDAR data supplied to Vanuatu Government to aid better coastal planning & management: 26 March, Twitter post, viewed 1 April 2014,

Some citation may combine elements of the above
eg. a conference presentation now available as an online video:

Wyborn, L. 2012. Activities in Australia to harness new technologies, paper presented to Harnessing Emerging Technologies for Environmental Science: a 2020 Vision, Royal Geographical Society, London, 16 May. Online video, viewed 7 March 2013,


Style manual for authors, editors and printers 2002, 6th ed., rev. by Snooks & Co, John Wiley & Sons, Milton, Qld.