NTDB & NTMS Specifications (250K & 100K)
Updated: 1 December 2007
Section 2 - NTMS Specifications
1.Scope of this Document
This document provides the rules and guidelines for the generation of the Geoscience Australia 1:100 000 and 1:250 000 Topographic Map Series products. It includes the relevant standards expected for map accuracy, datum control, map generalisation principles, map symbology and masking rules, type selection and placement rules, type (font & size) specification and standard type abbreviations.
Conformance to these specifications will assure uniformity through all mapping elements and agencies engaged in the production and maintenance programs for these series.
2.1 Use of Maps
The topographic map is a graphic representation of a portion of the earth's surface generalised to allow significant detail to be shown with clarity and without ambiguity. Detail is systematically plotted to scale on a selected map projection to present the horizontal and vertical position of topographic features in an identifiable and measurable form.
2.2 Map Accuracy
The term 'map accuracy' refers to the positional and vertical accuracy of information contained within the map. The term may also describe the quality and completeness of the information shown on a map. To the map user, the quality and completeness of the information is of prime importance and may take precedence over absolute positional accuracy. Thus the map maker must exercise maximum care in ensuring that the detail plotted is complete, correctly classified and portrayed with shape fidelity. Generalisation, although necessary in derived products, must be kept to a minimum.
2.2.1 Positional Accuracy
The positional accuracy of features on a map is an estimate of the degree to which the coordinates of that feature agree with the true values or values accepted as being true. The error in the position of a feature results from :
The measure of accuracy given for topographic maps is the standard deviation.
The term 'well-defined points' is used to define those locations which can be accurately identified on the map. Most commonly the well-defined points used in tests are at feature intersections. Geoscience Australia has carried out both error analysis and field tests to verify the positional accuracy of features on the existing mapping.
While Geoscience Australia's positional accuracy measurements for topographic data are given to encompass a feature's entire spatial representation. Geoscience Australia restricts its statements of Topographic Map Accuracy to well defined points.
NTMS maps will comply with the following statement of planimetric accuracy:
At 1:250 000 scale, the summation of errors from all sources results in map detail with a standard deviation of 85 metres for well-defined features.
An alternative and equal way of expressing this error is:
At 1:100 000 scale, the summation of errors from all sources results in map detail with a standard deviation of 34 metres for well-defined features.
An alternative and equal way of expressing this error is:
2.2.2 Vertical Accuracy
The National Mapping Council of Australia Standards of Map Accuracy (2nd edition, 1975) stated in general terms that, 90% of tested contours and elevations interpolated from contours will be accurate to within one half a contour interval of their true height. A definitive statement on map accuracy, both horizontal and vertical, is included in the marginal information of all maps.
2.2.3 Impact of Generalisation
Some features are subject to cartographic generalisation. Features may be located on the earth's surface in such a way that they cannot be separated at the scale of the map. To ensure cartographic clarity, either one feature is held in the correct position and the rest are displaced or when two or more features of the same type (e.g. powerline) are close together they may be amalgamated into a single feature.
For the TOPO250K NTDB, which is a cartographically generalised database, the displacement of entities occurs to the primary spatial representation of the feature (e.g. the linear spatial representation of a road in the roads feature dataset.) The displacement occurs during initial capture or possibly subsequent revision. The amalgamation of multiple features into a single primary spatial representation should only occur when directed in 'Appendix A- Feature Class Dictionary'. While for the TOPO250K NTDB there is no official limitation to the amount of features, or features to which (unless otherwise stated in Appendix A, Feature Class Dictionary), cartographic generalisation can occur, it should remain restricted to only the minimum amount of displacement or amalgamation to create an acceptable cartographically product. Any movement of features which then cause them to exceed their minimum acceptable planimetric accuracies should be an exception rather than standard practice.
For the TOPO100K NTDB as well as the 1:25 000 data capture model, which are not cartographically generalised database, this displacement or amalgamation occurs to the copy of the representation of the feature in a cartographic layer (e.g. the linear spatial representation of a pipeline/s in the Utility feature dataset is captured/maintained in its true position in relationship to the ground or imagery within acceptable planimetric accuracies. A copy of the spatial representation is made into the 'CartoGeneralisationLine' feature class in the 'Cartography' feature dataset. It is in this 'CartoGeneralisationLine' spatial representation that the displacement or amalgamation occurs to achieve an acceptable cartographic result.) The amalgamation of multiple features into a single primary spatial representation should only occur when directed in 'Appendix A- Feature Class Dictionary'. For the TOPO100K NTDB and 1:25 000 data capture model the offsetting of features will be kept to a minimum. Only the features listed below have been highlighted as acceptable to be displaced at these scales, though Geoscience Australia reserves the rights to extend this list on a case by case basis:
The following information is applicable to All Scales.
When displacing one or more are adjacent features, the higher a feature is on the list below, the more it should be attempted to maintain its correct position over those lower on the list. Natural features will be given precedence over constructed features. Features not on the list may be displaced unless otherwise stated in Appendix A, Feature Class Dictionary or in the paragraphs above. In such circumstances the position of features on the list will be maintained over the position of features not listed. If two features need to be offset to one another and neither is listed, the position of the feature with greater landmark value will be maintained.
For example, if a railway and road were coincident at the scale being produced, the railway would be displaced. Where two or three features are close and adjacent, one may be displaced by up to 225 metres at 1:250 000 scale and 90 metres at 1:100 000 scale. In the worst case when all these features are close and adjacent, one may be displaced by up to 675 metres at 1:250 000 scale and 270 metres at 1:100 000 scale.
Such displacement must maintain the correct alignment and spatial relationship of one feature to the other. Point features such as buildings in close proximity to linear features should be displaced in such a way that they retain, as far as possible, their positional relationship relative to other features. Where displacement of buildings will result in unnecessary clutter they may not be represented on the map. After displacement, these symbolised features will not remain within accuracy tolerances and therefore cannot be included in accuracy tests.
2.3 Use of Map Symbols
2.3.1 Positioning of Symbols
Normally the centre of a symbol will correspond with the position of the centre of the feature on the ground and unless otherwise specified, the orientation of the symbol will correspond with the orientation of the feature on the ground.
When, for the sake of clarity, it is necessary to displace a symbol, the amount of displacement will be kept to a minimum. In situations where it is not possible to correctly position all the symbols for a group of features, only the symbol for the most important feature will be shown.
The symbology for linear features will not extend beyond the map neatline. Symbology for features that meet the neatline will be truncated at right angles to the feature within the neatline. Treatment of the symbology for linear features meeting the tile edge is shown below.
2.4 Map Projection and Grid
The maps are published on the Universal Transverse Mercator projection. The projection, spheroid and grid zones are as specified for the Geocentric Datum of Australia 1994 (GDA94). A brief description is available in Appendix M and additional information on GDA94 is available on the World Wide Web at:
2.5 Map Extents
Generally, each standard 1:100 000 map will cover a half degree of latitude by a half degree of longitude. For non-standard maps, extensions have been made to include large cities into one map and also to minimise the areas of sea contained on a map.
At 1:250 000 scale each standard map will cover a one degree of latitude by one and a half degrees of longitude. The maps will also have a 'bleed edge' of approximately three minutes to the north and around 5 minutes to the east. For non-standard maps, extensions have been made to include large cities into one map and also to minimise the area of sea contained on a map.
For a detailed list of non-standard map areas, sheet extents and paper sizes refer to Appendix H.
2.6 Map Sheet Numbers and Names
The map indexes will be included in Appendix G.
2.7 Datum for Map Control
Horizontal control coordinates are based on the Geocentric Datum of Australia - 1994 (GDA94).
Vertical control values are based on the Australian Height Datum 1971, which is based on mean sea level 1966-1968.
2.8 Contour Interval
Generally, the standard contour interval for 1:100 000 scale maps is 20 metres. Occasionally omission of contours from the map (but not the data) will be necessary due to the nature of the terrain; variations to the standard interval will be advised on the map.
The 1:250 000 scale maps generally have a contour interval of 50 metres. Where omission of contours from the map (but not the data) is necessary due to the nature of the terrain in certain areas, variations to the standard interval will be advised on the map.
Geoscience Australia's Topographic Maps are generated via a CMYK composite file from which separates are derived. Colour separates are not generated directly from the data and therefore ,as the majority of symbols do not have transparent components, the printing order controls the majority of masking issues. The printing orders and associated printing notes are detailed in 'Appendix W - Map Printing Orders'.
This chapter in conjunction with 'Appendix W - Map Printing Orders' provides rules so that masking of features is applied uniformly to reproduction material. These rules come into force where overprinting between symbols of different colour is undesirable and clashes between features are unavoidable, see Section 2 Chapter 2.2.3 Impact of Generalisation and Section 2 Chapter 5. Type Selection and Placement. These rules generally do not affect features in the production databases but will be applied in the processes that produce the reproduction material.
Specific instructions have been included in 'Appendix A - Feature Type Dictionary' as well as 'Appendix W - Map Printing Orders' and these will take precedence over these general guidelines. Care should be taken in reading Appendix A to differentiate between:
General rules for masking are:
3. Information to be included
3.1 Information Internal to the Map
Those features specified in Appendix A - Feature Type Dictionary will be included on the map. The Feature Class Dictionary in conjunction with 'Appendix W - Map Printing Orders' establishes criteria for inclusion of features. In complex areas care should be taken when adding new features to avoid clutter and ambiguity on the map.
For 1:250 000 scale maps, grid lines at ten thousand metre intervals of the Map Grid of Australia (MGA94) will be shown as specified on the relevant 1:250 000 NATMAP Series Format Sheet, Appendix B.
For 1:100 000 scale maps, grid lines at one thousand metre intervals of the MGA94 will be shown as specified on the 1:100 000 NATMAP Series Format Sheet, Appendix B.
Where the eastern bleed edge crosses the grid zone boundary or the sheet is extended to the east across a zone boundary, all data will be plotted on the primary zone. However, in the bleed or extended area the appropriate grid for the adjacent zone, properly georeferenced will be plotted rather than the primary grid. For example, the Bega or Dubbo 1:250 000 would be plotted on Zone 55 with the Zone 56 grid in the correct orientation plotted for the area east of 150 degrees east.
Where a map overlaps two or more zones the zones will be labelled at the boundary. The label will be in black UMC 7 point type all in caps. The label will be offset 2.5 mm from the graticule line where the zone change occurs.
Example (1:250 000 only)
The 'UTM Grid Zone Designation' note will not be included on 1:100 000 scale maps.
For 1:250 000 scale maps, graticule lines at one minute intervals will be shown as specified on the relevant 1:250 000 NATMAP Series Format Sheet, Appendix B.
For 1:100 000 scale maps, graticule lines at one minute intervals will be shown as specified on the 1:100 000 NATMAP Series Format Sheet, Appendix B.
3.2 Map Surround Information
Map Surround Information to be shown will conform to the format sheets at Appendix B.
4. Feature Names
Inclusion of names on the map does not imply approval by the relevant Geographic Names Board. However, an authoritative source should be used. Names appearing on the latest previous edition map at the same scale will be shown unless the named feature no longer exists. Additional names may be included from source material supplied, larger scale topographic mapping or from the controlling authority.
Type styles and sizes to be used inside the neatline are specified in Section 2 Chapter 8 (1:250 000 Scale Type Specifications) and Section 2 Chapter 9 (1:100 000 Scale Type Specifications).
Specifications for type styles, sizes and placement of grid and marginal information are contained in the appropriate format sheets in Appendix B (for both 1:250 000 and 1:100 000 scale).
5.Type Selection and Placement
Names and descriptive notes are integral components of a map, which are essential aids to the identification and qualification of features depicted on the map. They also provide information that cannot be shown by mapping symbolisation.
The final map should not be cluttered or ambiguous in content. Names and descriptive notes should be in a size and style relevant to the prominence and/or of the relative importance of the depicted features.
The proper selection and placement of type is of extreme importance and will not only benefit the map user but also the final appearance of the map. Poor or careless labelling of features can cause complications in map reading and negate the cartographic quality of the map.
Only standard abbreviations listed in Section 2 chapter 10, Authorised Abbreviations, will appear on the map.
Type selection and placement is governed by the nature, size and relative importance of the feature to be identified.
The examples provided illustrate preferred and less desirable approaches to map labelling, and in the interests of clarity, reflect optimum conditions. However, it must be realised that what is deemed incorrect or less desirable may be the only alternative under abnormal conditions.
Preferred positioning of type, as outlined in these specifications, is established to ensure a standard treatment of definitive labelling.
5.2 Selection of Names and Descriptive Notes
The selection of names and descriptive notes will be based on, and consistent with, the source material supplied by Geoscience Australia.
Names used on the latest previous edition map should be maintained unless there is strong evidence that they are incorrect or that the named feature no longer exists.
When considering the selection of names to be included on the map, every effort should be made to ensure that they are compatible with the particular map area, scale and use.
Factors that must be considered are:
Common failings in the selection of names and descriptive notes include:
5.3 Principles of Type Placement
This chapter establishes the basic rules for type placement. These rules are subject to exceptions. Frequently more than one rule may apply to a particular situation and these rules may be in conflict with one another. In these situations the overriding factors in assessing which rule(s) takes precedence are determined from a standpoint of graphic legibility and order of importance. The rules are given in their order of importance.
1. Internal type is positioned to assure immediate and unmistakable identification of the features being labelled. Where possible, labelling is placed in areas of sparse symbolisation to avoid obscuring important land formations and other detail.
2. For most features labelling should be placed in a straight line. Where a feature constitutes a simple curve, the associated type should be broken into its individual word components and each component positioned parallel to the part of the feature to which it is adjacent. When labelling complex curves (e.g. rivers, ranges) the individual components are to be positioned so that they are parallel to the generalised shape of the feature. In both cases the components should appear to flow into one another and not have a disjointed appearance.
3. The maximum spacing between successive words of a feature name will be approximately one and a half (1½) times the length of the unspaced feature name. In many instances it will be practical to exceed the 1½ times rule providing word continuity is kept. Where practicable the word spacing should be the same for all words in a name.
4. Type positioned parallel to the easting grid line is aligned to read to its best advantage when viewed from the south neatline. The one exception to this rule occurs when adjacent features are nearly parallel and only one diverges from the perpendicular. In such cases, the direction of labelling is not reversed for the perpendicular feature.
5. When labelling individual symbols or small concentrated groups of symbols comprising a single feature, the type is to be placed adjacent to the symbol or symbols and aligned parallel to the northing graticule lines. Some map extents will cover two or more zones. Horizontal type will always be aligned to the northing graticule lines of the zone in which the type is situated. Preferred and acceptable alternate positioning of type is illustrated in the following diagram. Numbers indicate priority order for the type position.
6. Instances will occur due to density of detail where type must be placed a distance from the feature to be identified. In these instances a feature pointer extending from the type to the feature is required. However, this practice is kept to a minimum.
7. An integral part of any map is the grid and/or graticule. As such it is preferable that type be positioned in such a manner as to avoid overprinting grid/graticule lines (particularly the northing grid lines) or numbers. At 1:100 000 the term grid lines for this point refers to the 10 000 metre grid line. Obviously this will be impossible in some cases (eg. ocean names, areas of dense detail etc.). In these cases it is preferable that type does not overprint grid/graticule intersections, as these are important measurement points when calculating grid references. When labelling spot features it is preferable that both the symbol and the relating type fall within the confines of the same grid square. Where this is not possible due to length of type, the type should be positioned so that the grid/ graticule line does not impair its legibility. In extreme cases the grid/graticule may be broken to accommodate type.
8. Where possible, overprinting of type and detail, which print in the same colour, is to be avoided. In unusual cases, particularly where smaller type sizes are involved, it is necessary to block out features when legibility of type would otherwise be impaired.
The overprinting of type (letter touching letter) regardless of printing colour is not permissible in any circumstances.
9. Type should be positioned to avoid overprinting features that are to be printed in black, especially where such features are parallel to the type. When it becomes necessary to position labelling across linear features that are at right or near right angles to one another, the type is placed so that the letters of the label clear the perpendicular features.
10. Names consisting wholly of capital letters are centred within the area being identified, built-up areas excepted. If the area is extensive letter spacing is desirable.
Line spacing between words (leading) to be equal.
EXAMPLE: Type is generally centred, if possible, when placed within the area feature.
If the name does not fit within the area then the following rules apply:
EXAMPLE: Type is left justified when placed to the right of the area feature.
EXAMPLE: Type is right justified when placed to the left of the area feature.
If the area is extensive, letter spacing is desirable. When spacing type, the spacing between letters is not to exceed four (4) times the point size of the letters. Where letter spacing is used and the name consists of two or more words, the space between words is equal to three (3) times the space between the letters. Type that is letter or word spaced must be positioned so that the name stands out distinctly as a complete name. In congested areas, caution is advised on the use of maximum spacing since the continuity of names may be disrupted.
RESERVE (12 point)
R E S max letter spacing 36 point (3 times type size for 2 words)
It is not permissible to letter space names shown in both capital and lower case lettering.
Descriptive labels should be centred within or adjacent to the features area. Labels are aligned parallel to the northing graticule line, however, in unusual cases they may be positioned to follow the general shape of the feature.
11. Alternate names are preferably positioned below the primary name in the case of point or area features, and following the primary name in the case of linear features. Alternate names are shown in parentheses and in the same style of type as the primary name, but one point size smaller. An exception to this Rule occurs when the primary name is in the smallest type available or is in the smallest legible size.
In cases where the primary name includes a generic term (eg. 'River', 'RANGE'), the alternate name is placed between the primary and the generic term. Single word alternatives are placed adjacent to the primary name.
12. Descriptive terms may be added for the purpose of clarifying a primary name (eg. 'ruin', 'walled', 'abandoned'). For point and linear features descriptive terms are enclosed by parentheses. The parenthesised type is preferably centred directly below or positioned immediately following the primary name it clarifies.
A descriptive term included where there is no primary name or label will not be parenthesised.
All descriptive labels on point and linear features, parenthesised or not, will be shown entirely in lower case lettering and italicised.
See Section 2 Chapter 5.7 ( Descriptive Notes on Area Features) for handling of descriptive notes on area features.
13. Punctuation is omitted except for hyphens and apostrophes that are integral parts of official designations. Full stops are not to be used with abbreviations.
14. At 1:250 000 feature names should be placed so as to be wholly within or wholly outside the areas of overlap within adjacent maps. At 1:100 000 no annotation should exist in the bleed (map overhang).
15. Case sensitive names: Lower and uppercase letters will be used if they are an integral part of the proper name. For example: McLarty Hills or McLARTY HILLS; St George or St GEORGE. In all instances, the lower case letter will be aligned at the bottom of the other letters.
5.4 Populated Centres
Populated centres are depicted on the map by either individual buildings, clusters of buildings, built up areas or built up area symbols. The type size and style for place names are selected to fit predetermined classifications relative to population.( See Section 2 Chapter 8 1:250 000 Scale Type Specifications and Section 2 Chapter 9 1:100 000 Scale Type Specifications).
When identifying a built-up area, it is preferred that the name be positioned entirely within the limits of the area, provided that the legibility of type or continuity of cultural features is not impaired. When preferred positioning cannot be adhered to, the name is placed adjacent to the feature and aligned in accordance with Section 2 Chapter 5.3 rule 5.
When naming localities, the term 'mission' and 'homeland' should be avoided - refer to Geoscience Australia for correct name. Indigenous community names also need to be checked against geographic source information as many have changed in recent years. The word 'Community' may be used if it is the official name, eg: Burringah Community.
The names for localities represented by concentrated groups or clusters of building symbols are positioned in close proximity to the subject area. Type is preferably placed at, or near, the junction of the most heavily travelled route(s) passing through the populated centre.
A locality comprised of several individual homesteads requires unique treatment in that the name is placed over the approximate centre of the area covered by the locality. It is preferable that the type be placed parallel to the northing graticule line
Instances will occur, particularly in flat areas, where localities are comprised of semi-scattered buildings strung out along the major communication routes. When labelling this type of locality the name is placed adjacent to the junction of the main thoroughfares bisecting the locality.
In some rural areas, localities are comprised of widely dispersed buildings. These areas are often identified by references to prominent local features. Where this occurs, the name is positioned in the immediate vicinity of the feature referenced and extended toward the general area it serves to identify.
Proper names of well-known sections within a city, or outlying suburban areas, are shown in populated place type. The type is shown in capital and lower case lettering and is centred in the area concerned. The type size is scaled relative to the size of the subject area.
Names of places located along shorelines are placed entirely in the open-water area. Where developed areas are located adjacent to (but inland from) the shoreline, the name is placed entirely on the land area.
5.5 Point Features
An individual symbol or small concentrated groups of symbols may be labelled. The labels for features are usually descriptive. When labelling point features the type is positioned in accordance with Section 2 Chapter 5.3 rule 5. Where there are large numbers of instances of a feature, a general descriptive note may be included so as to reduce clutter, for example 'pools'. Care will be taken to avoid ambiguity when this is done.
5.6 Linear Features
Linear features include such items as roads, railways, power transmission lines, pipelines, double and single line watercourses, and similar features. When labelling linear features, it is preferable that the type be placed parallel to and above the upper side of the symbol as viewed from the south neatline.
Names for linear features are never letter spaced or extended. When a name placed at the middle point of a linear feature does not identify it sufficiently, the name is repeated at appropriate intervals to further clarify the symbol.
Where possible, labelling is placed along the straight segments of linear features rather than the curved portions. Where there is no alternative but to label the curved portions, type is to be positioned in accordance with Section 2 Chapter 5.3 rule 2.
When labelling boundaries, the names are placed on the side of the boundary that corresponds with the area being identified. It is preferred that the names be positioned adjacent to one another and parallel to the boundary symbol separating them.
In the placement of type referring to drainage features, "U" or inverted "U" shaped labelling is to be avoided. When labelling double line watercourses, it is desirable to have the names within the shorelines, provided the feature is wide enough to accommodate the entire name. Type is never positioned partially in or out of double line streams.
When labelling watercourses that are predominantly double line, the name is shown wholly in capital letters. The names for single line watercourses are shown in capital and lower case lettering.
Where a feature is too small to show the identifying type in its entirety, the authorised abbreviation given in Section 2 chapter 10, Authorised Abbreviations, is to be used.
5.7 Descriptive Notes on Area Features
Included in this category are features that are indicated only by descriptive labelling or where a descriptive label gives more information on the feature. The type should be centred within or adjacent to the features area. Labels are aligned parallel to the grid, however, in unusual cases they may be positioned to follow the general shape of the feature. See Appendix A, feature type dictionary, Recreation Areas (Feature Class), Distorted Surface, Mine Area and Outcrop. Descriptive notes may also be used for areas not stored as features in the database.
For unnamed and otherwise unlabelled area features the descriptive notes will be as specified in Section 2 Chapter 8 (1:250 000 Scale Type Specifications) and Section 2 Chapter 9 (1:100 000 Scale Type Specifications). For large areas the descriptive note may be repeated. For named or otherwise labelled areas such as reserves the descriptive notes will be in the same style and size as the name.
5.8 National Parks and Similar Features
When labelling national parks and similar features, it is preferable that the type be centred within the feature, space permitting. When the area is extensive, letter spacing is desirable.
Descriptive labels such as (ACCESS RESTRICTED) will be shown in the same type size as the reserve name label (see Example 2).
It is not uncommon to find smaller designated land tracts as integral parts of larger designated land areas. Labelling of the smaller designated areas is to be in a type size appropriate to the size of the area.
Where a national park or other reserve consists of several separate areas, each area is named. In cases where a national park or other reserve includes several offshore islands or both mainland and offshore island(s), type pertaining to the national park or other reserve will also be placed below the island name in a size relative to the size of the island. Where a reserve includes areas of both land and sea the type will be placed in which ever is the larger of the land or sea area (see Example 3).
Situations may occur where a large number of islands form a National Park or Reserve and the Islands have the same name as the National Park or Reserve. Where the addition of the Park or Reserve name to each island would result in clutter, the abbreviation '(NP)' may be added after the island names. In this case the name of the reserve must appear at least once on the map (see Example 4).
5.9 Route Markers and Distance Indicators
Route markers are centred on their respective road symbols and aligned parallel to the graticule line. Route markers are positioned so as to avoid grid lines, linear drainage symbols, and congested map detail. All other detail is blocked out of route markers.
National Route Marker Example:
The following are guides for placement of route markers to assure maximum effectiveness.
Kilometric distance indicators and the associated distances will be placed to avoid ambiguity and allow the calculation of route distances. Particular care should be taken around the map edges with the placement of kilometric distance indicators. Placement of indicators should be consistent between adjacent sheets and allow calculation of distances to continue from one sheet to another.
1:250 000 map distance measurement
1:100 000 map distance measurement
5.10 Relief Features
Features included in this category are: mountains, mountain ranges, ridges, valleys, plains, gorges, peaks, hills, bluffs, tors, and topographic surface characteristics.
In labelling relief features that are extensive in size, the type is positioned slightly above the axis of the landform as viewed from the south neatline. The name may be letter spaced and is aligned parallel to the general formation of the feature.
The names for narrow valleys, gorges, and similar features are preferably placed on the upper side of, and parallel to the axis of the feature identified.
The words 'Mount' and 'Mountain' will be abbreviated in all cases for these relief features as per the following examples; 'Mount Donald' would be shown as MT DONALD and 'Glendower Mountain' as GLENDOWER MTN on the map. Where 'Mount' and 'Mountain' form part of the name for a Range relief feature, this abbreviation will not be applied. For features other than relief features, the normal rules for use of abbreviations apply.
When labelling hills, peaks, pinnacles, and similar features, the type is placed in accordance with Section 2 Chapter 5.3 rule 5 provided it does not obscure other prominent detail, and the continuity of the relief remains unchanged. To avoid ambiguity, a spot elevation symbol may be used. Preferred and acceptable alternate positioning of names is established by the following examples:
Terms describing the nature of terrain, such as "gilgai" or "lava" are required when such features cannot be precisely identified with reference to the map symbol legend or where definitive labels must serve as the only means of area identification. When supported by a symbol pattern, labels are centred within the subject area. When labelling large areas void of distinctive symbolisation, the term is repeated as often as necessary to properly define area coverage and the approximate limits of the feature.
5.11 Contour Values
Contour values provide a convenient means of reading elevations portrayed by contour lines. The number and location of contour values is governed by the nature of the terrain, density of contours, and the number of horizontal control points and spot elevations. Areas of complex topography require a greater number of contour values than do areas of simple terrain.
Contours above the datum plane are labelled with positive numerals bearing no prefix. Contours below the datum plane are prefixed with the negative sign ( - ). Contours that are level with the datum plane are labelled with the numeral 0 (zero). Contours are not broken for contour values.
Contours will be labelled with the values reading uphill. Preference is given to them being legible from either the south or east neatline. Values for negative and zero contours are positioned in the same manner.
In the majority of cases, preferential treatment should be given to labelling index contours. In flat areas, however, most contours should be labelled so as to facilitate interpretation of the terrain.
Contour values are centred on the axes of contour lines, and are not positioned in the immediate vicinity of horizontal control points, bench marks, or spot elevations.
When labelling contours, sets of numerals are positioned so that a mechanical or stepladder like appearance is avoided.
Contour values are most effective when positioned near the ends of spurs, the sides of ridges, and at pronounced changes in topography. Under no circumstances are values positioned in mirror like sequence on each side of a particular ridgeline or landform.
Contour values are evenly distributed throughout the map sheet thus enabling the user to determine elevation without a prolonged search for reference points. When labelling contours portraying major landforms, values are repeated at distances of from 10 to 15 centimetres. Contour values will be positioned clear of all other detail.
Space permitting, contour values are added to auxiliary and depression contours wherever they are shown.
Isolations should be labelled where possible.
Sufficient values should be positioned near the neatline so that it is possible to determine the value of any contour crossing the neatline. Descriptive labelling will always take precedence over contour labelling.
5.12 Spot Elevations
Spot elevation values are positioned in close proximity to the symbol they identify. Where possible, the elevation values are placed to avoid obscuring features of importance to the map user; for example, peaks, ridges and saddles. It is preferred that the values be positioned to the right of the defined point with the centre of the numerals aligned with the horizontal centre of the referenced symbol.
Elevation and feature name
Instances will occur where spot elevations are provided for islands too small to accommodate the values. In such cases the value is positioned adjacent to the island and aligned in accordance with the previous paragraph. When the island is identified by a proper name, the value is shown at the end of the name and in parenthesis.
5.13 Horizontal Control Points
Values of horizontal control points are positioned in accordance with Section 2 Chapter 5.3 rule 5.
The following outlines the procedure for labelling and portraying horizontal control points:
Elevation and feature name
Elevation and alphanumeric identifier
5.14 Coastal Hydrographic Features
Coastal hydrographic features require the use of descriptive notes. Notes will appear wherever they convey information pertinent to the map user or where they clarify situations that could otherwise be confusing. Definitive labels for coastal hydrographic features are positioned as close to their precise location as map detail will allow. The type is positioned to avoid overprinting grid lines and hydrographic map symbols. Where two different characteristics are identified in the same location, such as mud and sand, they are centred one over the other.
5.15 Capes and Islands
In labelling capes and islands that are of extensive size, the type is centred within the land area and positioned parallel to the northing graticule line and, if necessary, letter spaced.
The names for peninsulas and island chains are placed parallel to the general formation of the feature. Where possible, the type identifying peninsulas is positioned within the land area.
The names for capes, points, and small islands are placed in the open water adjacent to the feature. Wherever possible, the type is placed to the right of the feature. Names are always positioned to avoid overprinting the shoreline.
5.16 Waterbodies and Watercourses
In labelling bodies of water whose limits can accommodate the entire name, the type is centred within the limits of the feature. Names are aligned parallel to the northing graticule line. When labelling large expanses of water, letter spacing is desirable.
When labelling small lakes and ponds, the names are positioned in accordance with Section 2 Chapter 5.3, rule 5.
The identifying names for marshes, swamps, bogs, and similar features are centred within the limits of the feature defined. The type is preferably aligned parallel to the northing graticule lines, and, when the area is extensive, letter spacing is desirable.
For rules on labelling Watercourses and Anabranches, refer to Section 1 chapter 3.8.1 Names and Section 3 chapter 6.9.3 Naming Watercourses, Anabranches, and Connectors.
5.17 Vegetation Features
The proper names for forests and rainforests are shown wherever there is sufficient space to accommodate the labelling. When labelling vegetation features, the type is centred within the overall limits of the area to be identified. The names are aligned either parallel to the northing graticule lines or placed to follow the general shape of the feature. When labelling large expanses of vegetation, letter spacing is desirable.
6. Type Size Selection Criteria
The type sizes and styles prescribed in the following 1:250 000 and 1:100 000 Type Specification sections are to be maintained. In exceptional circumstances, when space prohibits the use of a prescribed size, or the size indicated would distort the relative importance of the feature, a more appropriate size is to be selected.
The appropriate type size will be based on the size of the feature as it appears on the face of the map. For example, if the Murray River appears as one long feature across the face of the map and warrants a large type size, and a small section reappears at the neatline, the type size for the small section is based on the length of that small section. Similarly, for area features the type size will be chosen according to the area of the section that is being labelled.
All type is to be shown using the CMYK four colour process (ie. combinations of Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black).
All type (unless otherwise specifically stated in this document) is to be shown in Black
7. Type Style (Font) Abbreviations
In the following 1:250 000 and 1:100 000 Type Specification sections, styles are abbreviated as follows:
Alternative type styles are:
The following digital representations of the type may vary from that required depending on system specifications. Hard copy representations of type will be supplied if required.
8. 1:250 000 Scale Type Specifications
8.1 Cultural Features
Proper names of well-known sections within a city, or outlying suburban areas are centred in the area concerned. 8 point type may be used if the 7 point label is not sufficiently prominent
This listing is in alphabetical order by term. The term is given first followed by the abbreviation.
Unless otherwise stated, abbreviations will only be used where use of the full word would cause clutter or ambiguity.
The case of the abbreviation will be the case specified for the feature name in Section 2 Chapter 6. Type Size Selection Criteria.
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