Minerals and energy

Last updated:6 June 2019

Australia is a leading producer of mineral and energy resources for the world.


Minerals are natural, inorganic substances. They have distinct physical and chemical properties and crystal structures. Mineral compositions can be expressed either by a chemical formula indicating the elements present and proportions in which they are combined such as SiO2, or by name such as quartz. Minerals vary from simple, pure elements like gold, copper, silver, carbon and sulphur, to complex compounds that have many forms. Common minerals that occur in the Earth’s crust include quartz, feldspar, mica and calcite. Minerals may occur as single crystals or collections of crystals. Rocks are made from one or more minerals.

Mica crystals in quartz. Both are common minerals in the Earth's crust.

Portal to underground mine.

For Students

Australian mineral facts: Information for students about Australian minerals including properties, uses, history, formation, resources, and mining and processing.

For Teachers

Mineral Resources: Detailed information on mineral resources in Australia, including uses, regularly updated production and export figures, resource estimates and links to precompetitive products to facilitate exploration activity.


Energy can be derived from a number of different sources found on land (onshore) and below the oceans (offshore). Australian energy resources include petroleum, coal, uranium and thorium, as well as geothermal energy and other renewable energy resources. Geoscience Australia's work is specifically involved in areas such as geothermal energy, petroleum based energy, uranium and thorium and other less developed forms of potential energy.

For Students

Australian energy facts: Information for students about Australian energy (coal, uranium, thorium, oil and gas) including properties, uses, history, formation, resources, and mining and processing.

For Teachers

Energy Basics: An introduction to both non-renewable and renewable energy sources in Australia; many of these are a key contributor to Australia's economic prosperity as described in the Australian Energy Resource Assessment.

Energy Resources: More detailed information about energy resources.