different types of titanium surgical screws are sorted into a tray according to size and type

Commodity Summaries

Antimony

Critical Mineral
EDR
125.2 kt Sb ( 24%)
Ore Reserves
21.8 kt Sb ( 27%)
Operating Mines
1
Production
3.9 kt Sb ( 92%)
Export Income
n.a.
World Ranking
Resources
5 (7%)
Production
5 (1%)

Major Uses:

Metal alloys, fire retardants, lead batteries, manufacturing solder, sheet and pipe metal, ammunition, bearings, castings and pewter.

Abbreviations
kt Sb – kilotonnes of antimony content; n.a. – not available.

Notes
Resource figures are as at 31 December 2020. Operating mines and production are for calendar year 2020. Percentage increases or decreases are in relation to 2019. World rankings are followed by percentage share in brackets.

Bauxite

EDR
5,132 Mt ( -3%)
Ore Reserves
1,739 Mt ( -15%)
Operating Mines
9
Production
103.6 Mt ( -2%)
Export Income
$12,046 m ( -14%)
World Ranking
Resources
2 (17%)
Production
1 (28%)

Major Uses:

Production of aluminium metal for use in buildings, aeronautics, electric vehicles, whitegoods, power lines, food storage and renewable energy technologies.

Abbreviations
Mt – million tonnes; $m – million dollars (Australian).

Notes
Resource figures are as at 31 December 2020. Operating mines and production are for calendar year 2020. Percentage increases or decreases are in relation to 2019. World rankings are followed by percentage share in brackets. Export income is the sum of bauxite, alumina and aluminum categories, sourced from Office of the Chief Economist, Resources and Energy Quarterly, December 2021.

Black Coal

EDR
87,645 Mt ( -2%)
Ore Reserves
17,557 Mt ( -10%)
Operating Mines
91
Production
542 Mt ( -8%)
Export Income
$53,701 m ( -16%)
World Ranking
Resources
4 (10%)
Production
5 (7%)

Major Uses:

Electricity generation, steel making.

Abbreviations
Mt – million tonnes; $m – million dollars (Australian).

Notes
Resource figures are as at 31 December 2020. Operating mines and production are for calendar year 2020. Percentage increases or decreases are in relation to 2019. World rankings are followed by percentage share in brackets. Export income is the sum of thermal and coking coal categories, sourced from Office of the Chief Economist, Resources and Energy Quarterly, December 2021.

Brown Coal

EDR
81,234 Mt ( -5%)
Ore Reserves
n.a.
Operating Mines
3
Production
41.5 Mt ( -3%)
Export Income
$0 (0%)
World Ranking
Resources
2 (23%)
Production
6 (7%)

Major Uses:

Electricity generation, hydrogen generation.

Abbreviations
Mt – million tonnes; n.a. – not available

Notes
Resource figures are as at 31 December 2020. Operating mines and production are for calendar year 2020. Percentage increases or decreases are in relation to 2019. World rankings are followed by percentage share in brackets.

Cobalt

Critical Mineral
EDR
1,495 kt Co ( 7%)
Ore Reserves
674 kt Co ( 21%)
Operating Mines
4
Production
5.6 Mt Co ( -2%)
Export Income
$269 m (3%)
World Ranking
Resources
2 (21%)
Production
3 (4%)

Major Uses:

Rechargeable battery electrodes in lithium-ion batteries, electric vehicles, superalloys, pigments, catalysts and magnets.

Abbreviations
kt Co – kilotonnes of cobalt content; $m – million dollars (Australian).

Notes
Resource figures are as at 31 December 2020. Operating mines and production are for calendar year 2020. Percentage increases or decreases are in relation to 2019. World rankings are followed by percentage share in brackets. Export income sourced from Department of Mines, Industry Regulation and Safety, Western Australian Government, 2020 Major commodities resources file.

Copper

EDR
96.65 Mt Cu ( 4%)
Ore Reserves
23.35 Mt Cu ( 2%)
Operating Mines
38
Production
0.88 Mt Cu ( -5%)
Export Income
$10,570 m ( 5%)
World Ranking
Resources
2 (11%)
Production
6 (4%)

Major Uses:

Electricity distribution, electrical equipment and devices, plumbing, industrial machinery, interior fixtures, wind turbines, solar panels, electromagnets and the transport industry including electric vehicles.

Abbreviations
Mt Cu – million tonnes of copper content; $m – million dollars (Australian).

Notes
Resource figures are as at 31 December 2020. Operating mines and production are for calendar year 2020. Percentage increases or decreases are in relation to 2019. World rankings are followed by percentage share in brackets. Export income is the sum of refined and ore/concentrate categories, sourced from Office of the Chief Economist, Resources and Energy Quarterly, December 2021.

Diamond

EDR
10.97 Mc (0%)
Ore Reserves
10.30 Mc (0%)
Operating Mines
1
Production
9.98 Mc ( -23%)
Export Income
$419 m ( -32%)
World Ranking
Resources
5 (2%)
Production
3 (19%)

Major Uses:

Jewellery, industrial cutting equipment, diamond machine tools, rock drilling bits, diamond polishing powders and compounds.

Abbreviations
Mc – million carats; $m – million dollars (Australian).

Notes
Resource figures are as at 31 December 2020. Operating mines and production are for calendar year 2020. Percentage increases or decreases are in relation to 2019. World rankings are followed by percentage share in brackets. Export income is the sum of unsorted and gem categories, sourced from Office of the Chief Economist, Resources and Energy Quarterly, December 2021.

Gold

EDR
11,101 t Au ( 3%)
Ore Reserves
4,229 t Au ( 4%)
Operating Mines
164
Production
328 t Au ( 1%)
Export Income
$25,492 m ( 9%)
World Ranking
Resources
1 (20%)
Production
2 (10%)

Major Uses:

Jewellery, storing monetary value, personal electronic devices, computers, dentistry and aerospace industries.

Abbreviations
t Au – tonnes of gold content; $m – million dollars (Australian).

Notes
Resource figures are as at 31 December 2020. Operating mines and production are for calendar year 2020. Percentage increases or decreases are in relation to 2019. World rankings are followed by percentage share in brackets. Export income sourced from Office of the Chief Economist, Resources and Energy Quarterly, December 2021.

Graphite

Critical Mineral
EDR
7.97 Mt (0%)
Ore Reserves
5.00 Mt ( 4%)
Operating Mines
0
Production
0 Mt (0%)
Export Income
$0 (0%).
World Ranking
Resources
8 (2%)
Production
0 (0%)

Major Uses:

Anode component of lithium-ion batteries, refractory materials, lubricants and pencils.

Abbreviations
Mt – million tonnes.

Notes
Resource figures are as at 31 December 2020. Operating mines and production are for calendar year 2020. Percentage increases or decreases are in relation to 2019. World rankings are followed by percentage share in brackets.

Iron Ore

EDR
51,709 Mt ( 2%)
Ore Reserves
23,001 Mt ( -3%)
Operating Mines
45
Production
922 Mt (0%)
Export Income
$118,800 m ( 21%)
World Ranking
Resources
1 (29%)
Production
1 (38%)

Major Uses:

Steel and stainless steel manufacture, civil engineering, transport, cast iron, magnets and alloys.

Abbreviations
Mt – million tonnes; $m – million dollars (Australian).

Notes
Resource figures are as at 31 December 2020. Operating mines and production are for calendar year 2020. Percentage increases or decreases are in relation to 2019. World rankings are followed by percentage share in brackets. Export income is the sum of ore, crude steel and scrap categories, sourced from Office of the Chief Economist, Resources and Energy Quarterly, December 2021.

Lead and Zinc

Lead

EDR
35.73 Mt Pb ( -4%)
Ore Reserves
11.59 Mt Pb ( 1%)
Operating Mines
19
Production
0.49 Mt Pb ( -4%)
Export Income
$1,704 m ( 1%)
World Ranking
Resources
1 (41%)
Production
2 (11%)

Major Uses:

Batteries, underwater cable sheathing, solder, casting alloys, chemical compounds, weighting and radiation protection.

Abbreviations
Mt Pb – million tonnes of lead content; $m – million dollars (Australian).

Notes
Resource figures are as at 31 December 2020. Operating mines and production are for calendar year 2020. Percentage increases or decreases are in relation to 2019. World rankings are followed by percentage share in brackets. Export income is the sum of bullion, refined and concentrate categories, sourced from Office of the Chief Economist, Resources and Energy Quarterly, December 2021.

Zinc

EDR
66.41 Mt Zn ( -4%)
Ore Reserves
23.20 Mt Zn ( -5%)
Operating Mines
20
Production
1.31 Mt Zn ( -2%)
Export Income
$3,206 m ( -16%)
World Ranking
Resources
1 (26%)
Production
2 (11%)

Major Uses:

Galvanised steel for construction and transport industries, die-casts, brass, chemicals, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and electrical equipment.

Abbreviations
Mt Zn – million tonnes of zinc content; $m – million dollars (Australian).

Notes
Resource figures are as at 31 December 2020. Operating mines and production are for calendar year 2020. Percentage increases or decreases are in relation to 2019. World rankings are followed by percentage share in brackets. Export income is the sum of refined and ore/concentrate categories, sourced from Office of the Chief Economist, Resources and Energy Quarterly, December 2021.

Lithium, Tantalum and Niobium

Lithium

Critical Mineral
EDR
6,174 kt Li ( 8%)
Ore Reserves
3,777 kt Li (0%)
Operating Mines
5
Production
40 kt Li ( -11%)
Export Income
$793 m ( -40%)
World Ranking
Resources
2 (27%)
Production
1 (49%)

Major Uses:

Lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles and personal electronic devices, lubricant greases, pharmaceuticals, catalysts, glass, ceramics and alloys used in aerospace and motorsport industries.

Abbreviations
kt Li – kilotonnes of lithium content; $m – million dollars (Australian).

Notes
Resource figures are as at 31 December 2020. Operating mines and production are for calendar year 2020. Percentage increases or decreases are in relation to 2019. World rankings are followed by percentage share in brackets. Export income sourced from Department of Mines, Industry Regulation and Safety, Western Australian Government, 2020 Major commodities resources file.

Tantalum

Critical Mineral
EDR
99.4 kt Ta ( 6%)
Ore Reserves
39.0 kt Ta (0%)
Operating Mines
1
Production
0.1 kt Ta ( 4%)
Export Income
n.a.
World Ranking
Resources
1 (75%)*
Production
5 (4%)

Major Uses:

Capacitors for the electronics and telecommunications industry, resistors, semiconductors, alloys and superalloys, medical and dental applications and chemical process industries.

Abbreviations
kt Ta – kilotonnes of tantalum content; n.a. – not available.

Notes
Resource figures are as at 31 December 2020. Operating mines and production are for calendar year 2020. Percentage increases or decreases are in relation to 2019. World rankings are followed by percentage share in brackets. *World ranking for tantalum is based on documented resources only which excludes much of the large but unquantified resources in central Africa.

Niobium

Critical Mineral
EDR
216 kt Nb (0%)
Ore Reserves
58 kt Nb (0%)
Operating Mines
0
Production
n.a.
Export Income
n.a.
World Ranking
Resources
3 (2%)
Production
n.a.

Major Uses:

Micro alloy with iron for use in the construction and automotive industries, superalloys used in aeronautics and energy industries, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) equipment, glass, jewellery, prosthetics and medical implants.

Abbreviations
kt Nb – kilotonnes of niobium content; n.a. – not available.

Notes
Resource figures are as at 31 December 2020. Operating mines and production are for calendar year 2020. Percentage increases or decreases are in relation to 2019. World rankings are followed by percentage share in brackets.

Magnesite

Critical Mineral
EDR
286 Mt MgCO3 (0%)
Ore Reserves
37 Mt MgCO3 (0%)
Operating Mines
4
Production
0.8 Mt MgCO3 ( 50%)
Export Income
$75 m (162%)
World Ranking
Resources
4 (4%)
Production
5 (3%)

Major Uses:

Used to produce magnesium oxide (MgO) for use as a refractory material in the steel industry, animal feeds and fertilisers, flooring compounds, flame retardants and the pharmaceutical industry.

Abbreviations
Mt MgCO3 – million tonnes of magnesite carbonate (magnesite) content; $m – million dollars (Australian).

Notes
Resource figures are as at 31 December 2020. Operating mines and production are for calendar year 2020. Percentage increases or decreases are in relation to 2019. World rankings are followed by percentage share in brackets. Export income from the Department for Energy and Mining 2020, South Australia, Report Book 2021/00008 and the Queensland Department of Natural Resources and Mines, Queensland Annual Minerals Summary 2019-20.

Manganese Ore

Critical Mineral
EDR
276 Mt ( 1%)
Ore Reserves
135 Mt ( 48%)
Operating Mines
3
Production
4.8 Mt ( -36%)
Export Income
>$1,610 m
World Ranking
Resources
4 (10%)
Production
3 (12%)

Major Uses:

Alloying agent for steel manufacture, rechargeable electric vehicle batteries, plant fertilisers, animal feeds, glass and ceramics.

Abbreviations
Mt – million tonnes; $m – million dollars (Australian).

Notes
Resource figures are as at 31 December 2020. Operating mines and production are for calendar year 2020. Percentage increases or decreases are in relation to 2019. World rankings are followed by percentage share in brackets. Export income is a minimum figure as it does not include production from Western Australia. Available export income sourced from the Northern Territory Department of Industry Tourism and Trade, 2020 Northern Territory Mining Production.

Mineral Sands

Ilmenite

Critical Mineral
EDR
274.0 Mt (0%)
Ore Reserves
61.5 Mt ( -3%)
Operating Mines
11
Production
1.1 Mt ( 10%)
Export Income
n.a.
World Ranking
Resources
2 (22%)
Production
3 (9%)

Major Uses:

Main source of titanium dioxide which is used in paints, plastics, fabrics, rubber, textiles, paper, sunscreen, cosmetics and as fluxing agents.

Abbreviations
Mt – million tonnes; n.a. – not available.

Notes
Resource figures are as at 31 December 2020. Operating mines and production are for calendar year 2020. Percentage increases or decreases are in relation to 2019. World rankings are followed by percentage share in brackets.

Rutile

Critical Mineral
EDR
35.3 Mt (0%)
Ore Reserves
9.7 Mt ( -2%)
Operating Mines
8
Production
0.2 Mt (0%)
Export Income
n.a.
World Ranking
Resources
1 (63%)
Production
1 (26%)

Major Uses:

Production of titanium metals for aircraft, spacecraft, vehicles, surgical implants, sports equipment, desalination plants, and general industrial equipment.

Abbreviations
Mt – million tonnes; n.a. – not available.

Notes
Resource figures are as at 31 December 2020. Operating mines and production are for calendar year 2020. Percentage increases or decreases are in relation to 2019. World rankings are followed by percentage share in brackets.

Zircon

Critical Mineral
EDR
79.3 Mt ( -1%)
Ore Reserves
24.3 Mt ( -2%)
Operating Mines
10
Production
0.4 Mt ( -20%)
Export Income
n.a.
World Ranking
Resources
1 (71%)
Production
2 (21%)

Major Uses:

Used as an opacifier for glazes on ceramic tiles, in refractories and for the foundry industry, nuclear reactors, superconducting magnets, chemical industries and cosmetics.

Abbreviations
Mt – million tonnes; n.a. – not available.

Notes
Resource figures are as at 31 December 2020. Operating mines and production are for calendar year 2020. Percentage increases or decreases are in relation to 2019. World rankings are followed by percentage share in brackets.

Molybdenum

EDR
403 kt Mo ( 63%)
Ore Reserves
4 kt Mo (0%)
Operating Mines
0
Production
0 kt Mo (0%)
Export Income
$0 (0%)
World Ranking
Resources
7 (2%)
Production
0

Major Uses:

Drills, catalysts, lubricants, fertilisers, structural steel and steel alloys used in engine parts.

Abbreviations
kt Mo – kilotonnes of molybdenum content.

Notes
Resource figures are as at 31 December 2020. Operating mines and production are for calendar year 2020. Percentage increases or decreases are in relation to 2019. World rankings are followed by percentage share in brackets.

Nickel

EDR
21.4 Mt Ni ( 1%)
Ore Reserves
9.5 Mt Ni ( 14%)
Operating Mines
13
Production
0.17 Mt Ni ( 6%)
Export Income
$2,720 m ( -34%)
World Ranking
Resources
1 (22%)
Production
5 (7%)

Major Uses:

Stainless and heat-resistant steel production used in chemical industries, motor vehicles, medical applications, electronic engineering and construction. Also non-ferrous alloys, electroplating and lithium-ion batteries.

Abbreviations
Mt Ni – million tonnes of nickel content; $m – million dollars (Australian).

Notes
Resource figures are as at 31 December 2020. Operating mines and production are for calendar year 2020. Percentage increases or decreases are in relation to 2019. World rankings are followed by percentage share in brackets. Export income is the sum of refined/intermediate and ore/concentrate categories sourced from Office of the Chief Economist, Resources and Energy Quarterly, December 2021.

Phosphate

EDR
1,081 Mt ( -1%)
Ore Reserves
124 Mt ( 10%)
Operating Mines
2
Production
1.3 Mt ( 30%)
Export Income
n.a.
World Ranking
Resources
9 (2%)
Production
18 (1%)

Major Uses:

Source of phosphorus for fertilisers, animal feed, food additives, detergents, herbicides, electronics, asphalt, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. There is no substitute for phosphorus in agriculture.

Abbreviations
Mt – million tonnes of phosphate rock; n.a. – not available.

Notes
Resource figures are as at 31 December 2020. Operating mines and production are for calendar year 2020. Percentage increases or decreases are in relation to 2019. World rankings are followed by percentage share in brackets.

Platinum Group Elements

Critical Mineral
EDR
107.0 t metal ( 185%)
Ore Reserves
0 t metal (0%)
Operating Mines
n.a.
Production
0.522 t metal ( 8%)
Export Income
$45 m ( 30%)
World Ranking
Resources
minor
Production
minor

Major Uses:

Jewellery, investment instrument, chemical industries, catalysts and catalytic converters, electronic devices, glass manufacture, industrial crucibles and surgical implants.

Abbreviations
t metal –tonnes of metal content from platinum group elements (platinum, palladium, osmium, iridium, ruthenium, rhodium); n.a. – not available; $m – million dollars (Australian).

Notes
Resource figures are as at 31 December 2020. Operating mines and production are for calendar year 2020. Percentage increases or decreases are in relation to 2019. World rankings are followed by percentage share in brackets. Export income from Department of Mines, Industry Regulation and Safety, Western Australian Government, 2020 Major commodities resources file.

Potash

EDR
42.5 Mt K2O ( 21%)
Ore Reserves
20.7 Mt K2O ( 314%)
Operating Mines
0
Production
0 Mt K2O (0%)
Export Income
$0 (0%)
World Ranking
Resources
12 (1%)
Production
0

Major Uses:

Fertilisers, animals feeds, ceramics, detergents, pharmaceuticals, de-icing and glass manufacture.

Abbreviations
Mt K2O –million tonnes of potassium oxide content.

Notes
Resource figures are as at 31 December 2020. Operating mines and production are for calendar year 2020. Percentage increases or decreases are in relation to 2019. World rankings are followed by percentage share in brackets.

Rare Earth Elements

Critical Mineral
EDR
4.20 Mt oxide ( 4%)
Ore Reserves
2.98 Mt oxide ( -1%)
Operating Mines
2
Production
0.02 Mt oxide ( 11%)
Export Income
$270 m
World Ranking
Resources
6 (4%)
Production
4 (8%)

Major Uses:

Permanent magnets, motors, metal alloys, electronic and computing equipment, batteries, catalytic converters, petroleum refining, medical imaging, colouring agents in glass and ceramics, phosphors, lasers and special glass.

Abbreviations
Mt oxide – million tonnes of rare earth oxide plus yttrium oxide; $m – million dollars (Australian).

Notes
Resource figures are as at 31 December 2020. Operating mines and production are for calendar year 2020. Percentage increases or decreases are in relation to 2019. World rankings are followed by percentage share in brackets. Export income sourced from Department of Mines, Industry Regulation and Safety, Western Australian Government, 2020 Major commodities resources file.

Scandium

Critical Mineral
EDR
30.34 kt Sc ( 13%)
Ore Reserves
11.65 kt Sc ( -8%)
Operating Mines
0
Production
0 kt Sc (0%)
Export Income
$0 (0%)
World Ranking
Resources
n.a.
Production
0

Major Uses:

Alloys for aerospace industries, solid oxide fuel cells, specialised lighting applications, ceramics, lasers, electronics and sporting goods.

Abbreviations
kt Sc – kilotonnes of scandium content; n.a. – not available.

Notes
Resource figures are as at 31 December 2020. Operating mines and production are for calendar year 2020. Percentage increases or decreases are in relation to 2019. World rankings are followed by percentage share in brackets.

Silver

EDR
92.50 kt Ag ( 2%)
Ore Reserves
27.23 kt Ag ( 9%)
Operating Mines
31
Production
1.34 kt Ag ( 1%)
Export Income
$222 m ( 78%)
World Ranking
Resources
1 (18%)
Production
5 (5%)

Major Uses:

Jewellery, silverware, storing monetary value, photographic paper and film, mirrors, water treatment, plastics and textiles.

Abbreviations
kt Ag – kilotonnes of silver content; $m – million dollars (Australian).

Notes
Resource figures are as at 31 December 2020. Operating mines and production are for calendar year 2020. Percentage increases or decreases are in relation to 2019. World rankings are followed by percentage share in brackets. Export income sourced from Office of the Chief Economist, Resources and Energy Quarterly, December 2021.

Tin

EDR
574 kt Sn ( 2%)
Ore Reserves
301 kt Sn ( 15%)
Operating Mines
1
Production
8.1 kt Sn ( 7%)
Export Income
$175 m ( -7%)
World Ranking
Resources
3 (13%)
Production
8 (3%)

Major Uses:

Bronze for electrical products and sculpture, solders, steel coatings, metal alloys, electric vehicles, lead-acid batteries, lithium-ion batteries, superconducting magnets, dyes, disinfectants, perfumes, cast iron, fire retardants, pewter and tinsel.

Abbreviations
kt Sn – kilotonnes of tin content; $m – million dollars (Australian).

Notes
Resource figures are as at 31 December 2020. Operating mines and production are for calendar year 2020. Percentage increases or decreases are in relation to 2019. World rankings are followed by percentage share in brackets. Export income is based on tin concentrate and sourced from Office of the Chief Economist, Resources and Energy Quarterly, December 2021.

Tungsten

Critical Mineral
EDR
577 kt W ( 43%)
Ore Reserves
230 kt W ( 7%)
Operating Mines
2
Production
<1 kt W (0%)
Export Income
n.a.
World Ranking
Resources
2 (17%)
Production
minor

Major Uses:

Cemented carbides used in cutting applications and wear-resistant materials, electrodes, filaments (light bulbs), wires and components in electrical, heating, lighting and the aeronautical industry.

Abbreviations
kt W – kilotonnes of tungsten content; n.a. – not available.

Notes
Resource figures are as at 31 December 2020. Operating mines and production are for calendar year 2020. Percentage increases or decreases are in relation to 2019. World rankings are followed by percentage share in brackets.

Uranium

EDR
1,239 kt U ( 8%)
Ore Reserves
240 kt U ( -15%)
Operating Mines
3
Production
6.203 kt U ( -6%)
Export Income
$762 m ( 2%)
World Ranking
Resources
1 (31%)
Production
2 (13%)

Major Uses:

Fuel for nuclear power reactors, medicine, food-processing, space and defence industry applications.

Abbreviations
kt U – kilotonnes of uranium content; $m – million dollars (Australian).

Notes
Resource figures are as at 31 December 2020. Operating mines and production are for calendar year 2020. Percentage increases or decreases are in relation to 2019. World rankings are followed by percentage share in brackets. Export income is based on uranium oxide (U3O8) and sourced from Office of the Chief Economist, Resources and Energy Quarterly, December 2021.

Vanadium

Critical Mineral
EDR
7408 kt V ( 23%)
Ore Reserves
1689 kt V ( 9%)
Operating Mines
0
Production
0 kt V (0%)
Export Income
$0 (0%)
World Ranking
Resources
2 (29%)
Production
0 (0%)

Major Uses:

Alloyed with iron for high-strength steel applications, ceramics, electronics, textiles, fertilisers, synthetic rubber, batteries and alloys used in nuclear engineering and superconductors.

Abbreviations
kt V – kilotonnes of vanadium content.

Notes
Resource figures are as at 31 December 2020. Operating mines and production are for calendar year 2020. Percentage increases or decreases are in relation to 2019. World rankings are followed by percentage share in brackets.