Marine and Coastal Survey Techniques

Biological Sampling
In order to understand which animals are able to live under particular conditions, ecologists at Geoscience Australia use a range of methods to sample the seafloor.
Photography and Video
Images of the seafloor are collected using video and still-photography cameras to allow scientists to study the seabed (benthic environment).
Sedimentary Coring and Drilling
Scientists use coring, drilling and sediment sampling equipment, to collect sediment and rock samples from the seafloor and the top few metres of the substrate.
Seismic
Seismic profiling is a technique which uses sound pulses to penetrate through the seafloor and generate a 2D cross-section. This technique is particularly suited for mapping sedimentary rocks in the search for oil and gas.
Sonar
Marine geologists use sidescan sonar, multibeam sonar and shallow water sub-bottom profiling equipment to map the seafloor.