Australian mineral facts
Last updated:11 September 2023
Australia produces 19 useful minerals in significant amounts, from over 350 operating mines. From these minerals, useful materials such as metals can be extracted. Australia is one of the world's leading producers of bauxite (aluminium ore), iron ore, lithium, gold, lead, diamond, rare earth elements, uranium, and zinc. Australia also has large mineral sand deposits of ilmenite, zircon and rutile. In addition, Australia produces large quantities of black coal, manganese, antimony, nickel, silver, cobalt, copper and tin.
Mining occurs in all states of Australia, the Northern Territory and Christmas Island. There is no mining in the Australian Capital Territory apart from quarries used for construction materials. Australia's Identified Mineral Resources, has up-to-date information on mineral resources in Australia including resource estimates, production and export figures.
Metals and other mineral ores
Minerals are naturally occurring, inorganic, solids. They are the ingredients of rocks. Ores are rocks that contain metals or valuable minerals, that can be mined for profit.
Some ores found and mined in Australia include:
The term Mineral sands is given to a group of heavy minerals commonly found and mined together from old beach, river or dune environments. Occasionally these deposits are referred to as beach sand deposits or heavy mineral deposits. Typically beaches are dominated by the mineral quartz (SiO2), but mineral sands contain concentrations of important minerals such as rutile, ilmenite, monazite, zircon and garnet. Other heavy minerals found in mineral sands include magnetite, sapphire, diamond and staurolite. In Australia, the three main elements extracted from mineral sand deposits are titanium from ilmenite and rutile sands, zirconium from zircon sands and thorium from monazite.
Gemstones are minerals that possess beauty and durability and have a rarity that makes them desirable. There are over 4000 different minerals, yet only 130 are considered gemstones and of these less than 50 are frequently used. In addition, organic materials that are not minerals, such as amber or pearl are also often considered to be gemstones as well. The rarest and most valuable of all are diamond, emerald (green beryl), sapphire (blue corundum) and ruby (red corundum). Opal is the national gemstone of Australia.
Geoscience Australia houses the National Mineral and Fossil Collection, an impressive selection of some 15 000 mineral and 100 000 fossil specimens, of which approximately 800 are on permanent display. Geoscience Australia's mineral collection can be viewed through a number of online exhibits hosted by Google Arts & Culture.
New South Wales
The New South Wales Department of Primary Industries offers mineral factsheets relating to commodities found in New South Wales.
The Northern Territory Government provides a guide to Gems and Minerals in the Northern Territory .
The Queensland Government, supports the Queensland Minerals and Energy Academy an industry/education schools partnership between the Queensland resources industry and the government. The Academy assists students with their understanding of, and exposure to, the resources sector and related career paths.
The South Australian Government provides educational resources for teachers.
Earth Sciences Western Australia (ESWA) is a consortium of universities, the CSIRO, Minerals, Oil and Gas Industry partners, as well as and other public and private organisations have collaborated to develop a suite of Earth and Environmental Science (EES) resources, materials and teacher training.
The University of Western Australia owns and operates the Edward de Courcy Clarke Earth Science Museum which is open to the public on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays and on Sunday afternoons.
Mineral Resources Tasmania has comprehensive information on Tasmania geology, mining and exploration.